Ibintu bitatu bituma abantu bisanga mu ntera zitandukanye z’imibereho muri sosiyete

5 8-11-2018 - saa 09:35, Dr. Gasana Sebastien

Abahanga n’abashakashatsi mu byerekeye ubumenyi mu mibanire y’abantu muri sosiyete (Sociologists) bemeza ko hari ibintu bitatu bituma abantu bisanga mu nzego cyangwa intera zinyuranye z’imibereho (social stratifications) muri buri sosiyete y’abantu. Ibyo bintu bitatu bakemeza ko ari ibi bikurikira: - Ububasha, Ubutunzi n’Icyubahiro.

Mu busesenguzi abahanga banyuranye bakora, muri rusange bemeza ko ibyo bintu bitatu tuvuze usanga ahanini bijyana kandi byuzuzanya muri sosiyete zinyuranye. Iyo turebye hirya no hino kw’Isi, reka dufate urugero nko muri Afurika, biroroshye kubona ko abantu bafite ububasha ( cyane cyane ubutegetsi) akenshi bakunze kugira n’ubutunzi ndetse bagahabwa n’icyubahiro muri sosiyete.

Mu mirongo ikurikira tugiye kureba, mu magambo make, uko ibyo bintu bitatu ahanini bishingirwaho kugira abantu muri sosiyete babe bari mu rwego uru n’uru rw’imibereho (social stratification) biteye.

Ububasha (Power/Influence)

Muri buri sosiyete y’abantu twavuga ko umuntu ufite ububasha ku bandi aba ashobora gutuma abo bantu bandi bakora ibyo we yifuza, ndetse n’ibintu, muri rusange, bikajya mu murongo cyangwa icyerekezo aba yifuza.

Ibi rero bikerekana ko akenshi iyo tuvuze ububasha muri sosiyete cyangwa igihugu iki n’iki, duhita tugusha ku bubasha bwo mu rwego rwa politiki, kuko burya, mu ncamake, mbere na mbere umurimo w’umunyapolitiki ari ugutanga umurongo no kuyobora abo ashinzwe kandi ashingiye ku mategeko igihugu cyangwa sosiyete barimo igenderaho.

Nk’uko byumvikana neza kandi muri buri sosiyete y’abantu, kubera ko nyine bose badashobora kugera cyangwa kugira ububasha bungana, niyo mpamvu, mu mibereho yabo, abantu bahora basa n’abahanganira kugira ububasha ku buryo buri wese aba yifuza kuba yagira ubusumbye ubw’abandi.

Ariko kandi, nk’uko nigeze mbivuga mu yindi nyandiko yatambutse mbere, twibuke ko abahanga mu bumenyi bw’imibanire y’abantu muri sosiyete berekana ko ububasha, muri rusange, atari ubwo bwonyine gusa bwo mu rwego rwa politiki kuko hari n’ubundi.

Ubutunzi (Wealth/Property)

Iyo umuntu arebye neza uko ubuzima bw’abantu bubaye, muri sosiyete zose z’abantu kuri iyi Si dutuye, asanga ibyo abantu bakora byose baba bashaka kubikuraho umusaruro, ari nawo nyine ubyara ubutunzi. Inkomoko y’ubutunzi rero ahanini ikaba ishingiye ku murimo.

Muri buri sosiyete y’abantu, abatunze byinshi bahora bashaka kubyongera, mu buryo bunyuranye, nk’uko n’abafite ibike cyangwa ibiringaniye nabo baba bashaka kuva aho bari ngo batere imbere mu butunzi. Twavuga ko gushaka kugira cyangwa kongera ubutunzi ariyo ntego y’ingenzi y’umurimo w’abantu, kuko ubutunzi aribwo nyine bakomoraho ibibatunga.

Ikindi twavuga ni uko, muri rusange ndetse no muri sosiyete zose, usanga abatunze byinshi bagira n’ijambo ndetse bakabikuramo n’icyubahiro. Niyo mpamvu, nk’uko twari tumaze kubivuga mu mirongo yo hejuru, hari imirimo uzasanga muri buri sosiyete isa n’iyubahwa kurusha indi.

Icyubahiro (Prestige/Status)

Uko umuntu abonwa cyangwa yubahwa n’abandi muri sosiyete ntabwo nkeka ko ari ikintu cyoroshye kugaragazwa mu buryo bufatika. Ariko ibyo ntibibuza ko, iyo urebye muri sosiyete zose z’abantu, buri wese aba yifuza kugira isura nziza no kugaragarizwa ko yubashywe na bagenzi be.

Muri make kandi muri rusange, muri sosiyete, hari ibintu bibiri by’ingenzi abantu ahanini bashingiraho mu kugaragariza umuntu icyubahiro, aribyo: umurimo umuntu akora (profession) ndetse n’inkomoko ye (social origin).

Muri sosiyete nyinshi z’abantu, dutanze nk’urugero, iyo umuntu avuze ko ari umuganga uvura abantu, cyangwa se ko akomoka mu muryango uyu n’uyu ukomeye kandi uzwi, akenshi, muri rusange abantu bumva bamwubashye; kabone n’iyo baba batarasuzuma neza ngo bamenye uko ubwe ateye.

Muri make, duhiniye aha iyi nyandiko, twavuga ko, dushingiye ku busesenguzi bw’abahanga mu bumenyi bw’imibanire y’abantu muri sosiyete, twerekanye ibintu bitatu ahanini bishingirwaho, muri buri sosiyete, mu kugaragaza urwego rw’imibereho abantu baba bariho muri sosiyete zabo.

Dr Gasana Sebastien, Umwarimu muri Christian University of Rwanda (CHUR)
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TANGA IGITEKEREZO

AMATEGEKO AGENGA IYANDIKA RY'IGITEKEREZO CYAWE

1
Kana 2018-11-08 15:55:57

Ibyo Uwiyise KK yavuze ntabwo ari ukuri. Ibyo Dr yavuze ni nka general fundamenta theories; ntabwo rero zashaje na busa. Birumvikana ko iyo uvuze wealth, muri iki gihe igizwe n’ibiriho nyine (kuko society ihinduka). Ubu se ntabwo ujya wumva bavuga "intellectual property". Ubwo rero ni ubukungu bw’iki gihe.
Ibirebana n’umuco (material or immaterial), birumvikana ko prestige /status ifitanye isano itaziguye nawo!
Niba ubyumva neza ubwo urasesengura ugeze aho ushaka!

2
Felicien 2018-11-08 09:52:23

Nibyorwose uko ni ukuri kuzuye muri society iyariyose kwisi!Gusa jye nabwira abantuko ushaka ubukiere n’icyubahiro yabishakisha mukwicisha bugufi yubaha Uwiteka kuko bizamushyitsa mukiciro runaka akeneye kujyamo muri society abatizwamo!musome igitabo kimigani22:4gukora no gukunda umurimo bigakurikiraho!!

3
Kk 2018-11-08 09:20:43

Urakoze Dr. kuduhugura ariko nagirango nongereho akandi kantu izo theory nizo zari iza cyera aho ubukungu bwari bushingiye ku bintu bifatika bitewe nuko society imeze ubu muri theories ziri advanced ntabwo wealth zikiri property gusa nka cyera ubu theory shyashya property wongeramo "information" ndetse muri biriya bya status /prestige/power wongeramo ibyo twita "umuco" ugaragara nutagaragara, Reba nange urugero uko twigana abahanzi mu myitwarire nimyambaro, Reba mu Rwanda dukunda gushayaya suko aribyo biriho gusa ariko biva kumuco kuko ujyana ahanini nufite imbaraga zo kuyobora cyangwa political power nubwo hari ahandi Power ituruka ref Foucault, ikindi wazadutegurira uburyo technology yahinduye ziriya theory wanditse zari izakera. Hanyuma kugirango bidufashe nkabasomyi wajya uduha ingero niyo yaba umwe cg 2 aho uvuga abahanga ukamubwira amazina kugira ngo nitubishobora tube twasoma izo nyandiko zabo. Urakoze kuduhugura mukomereze aho

4
DEDE 2018-11-08 08:48:31

Urakoze cyane Dr. Ibyo muvuze nibyo cyane. Ibi kandi bisigaye birenga mumibanire y’abantu bikagera no munzu y’Imana cyanecyane abo twita abarokore. Usanga batanga ibyicaro bakurikije social consideration (ubutunzi, umwanya wa politic, kumwuga...)

5
DEDE 2018-11-08 08:48:31

Urakoze cyane Dr. Ibyo muvuze nibyo cyane. Ibi kandi bisigaye birenga mumibanire y’abantu bikagera no munzu y’Imana cyanecyane abo twita abarokore. Usanga batanga ibyicaro bakurikije social consideration (ubutunzi, umwanya wa politic, kumwuga...)

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