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Pariki y’Akagera ku isonga mu gusurwa na ba mukerarugendo: Ibintu bitanu bidasanzwe wayimenyaho (Amafoto)

0 21-07-2021 - saa 16:40, Muhonzire Sylvine

Hashize imyaka 87 Pariki y’Akagera ishinzwe n’Ababiligi bakolonizaga u Rwanda. Nubwo yemejwe icyo gihe, yamaze imyaka igera muri 40 imeze nk’aho ntacyo imariye igihugu kuko yatangiye gusurwa na ba mukerarugendo mu buryo bwemewe mu 1975 none ubu iri ku isonga mu gusurwa n’abantu benshi kurusha izindi pariki zose mu Rwanda.

Pariki y’Akagera ifite ubuso bungana na kilometero kare 1.122, ni ukuvuga ahantu hangana n’Umujyi wa Kigali wose wongeyeho Akarere ka Rubavu. Icungwa n’Ikigo cya African Parks cyo muri Afurika y’Epfo. Iherereye mu Burasirazuba bw’u Rwanda, hafi y’umupaka warwo naTanzania ikaba ikora ku Turere twa Nyagatare, Gatsibo na Kayonza.

Kuyigendamo bifata hagati y’amasaha atandatu n’arindwi mu modoka kuko irimo imihanda ingana na kilometero 120, ifasha abakunzi b’inyamaswa kuzireba bazitegeye.

Ubwiza bwayo, urusobe rw’ibinyabuzima buyibamo ndetse n’ubwoko bw’inyamaswa z’inkazi butemberamo, ni byo bituma ireshya ba mukerarugendo bavuye ibwotamasimbi baje kwihera ijisho ibyo biremwa bibaho mu buzima budasanzwe.

Nubwo bimeze gutya ariko si ko byahoze kuko hari igihe iyi pariki yari imeze nk’iyazimye inyamaswa zibana n’abaturage ku buryo utari gutandukanya pariki n’ahatuye abantu.

-  Pariki y’Akagera yongeye kuzuka

Kubera imicungire mibi ya Pariki y’Akagera, ibibazo by’indwara zibasiye inyamaswa zimwe na zimwe n’ingaruka za Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu 1994, inyamaswa zimwe zarazime. Hari na ba rushimusi bayigabije bica inyamaswa, ibi bikiyongeraho iby’abaturage bahungutse bagiye kuyituramo barazica, izindi zirahunga.

Mu 1970, inkura zari zimaze imyaka 13 zishyizwe muri iyi pariki zikuwe muri Tanzania zarazimye kubera ba rushimusi ndetse mu 1990 habarirwaga intare zigera muri 250 na 300 ariko na zo mu myaka yakurikiye Jenoside, abahigi barazishe zirashira.

Mu bushakashatsi bwakozwe na Dr. Rwanyiziri Gaspard mu 2008 ku bukerarugendo bwo muri pariki zo mu Rwanda, bwagaragaje ko mu 1998 nta bukerarugendo na buke bwabereye mu Akagera, gusa uko myaka yagiye ihita bwagiye bwiyongera kugeza ubwo mu 2002 abasuye iyi pariki bageraga ku 6000 ku mwaka, ikimenyetso cyerekana ko yari itangiye kuzuka.

-  Iri mu zibengukwa na ba mukerarugendo benshi mu gihugu

Abakerarugendo bagira amahitamo atandukanye; hari ababa bashaka guha ijisho inyamaswa z’inkazi, abizihirwa no kureba inyoni n’izindi bigendanye n’ubushake bwabo.

Muri pariki zisurwa na benshi mu gihugu ku isonga hari iy’Akagera. Mu 2019 gusa yasuwe n’abakerarugendo bagera ku bihumbi 50.000 kandi muri aba 50% bari Abanyarwanda, mu gihe mu wa 2018 yasuwe n’abagera ku 44.000, binjiriza u Rwanda miliyari ebyiri z’amafaranga y’u Rwanda.

Uyisuye ubu ntiwamenya ko ari ya pariki ba rushimusi bamazemo inyamaswa cyangwa iyigeze guturwamo n’abaturage, ahubwo watungurwa no kubona urusobe rw’inyamaswa zitandukanye zitambagira mu gisambu, izindi ziri mu biyaga cyane ko iyi pariki ifite umugezi wa Akagera, Ikiyaga cy’Ihema n’ibindi biyaga byinshi.

Dr. Rwanyiziri Gapard agaragaza ko mu 1990 Pariki y’Akagera yasurwaga n’abantu bari hagati ya 2500 na 3000 ariko kubera ibibazo by’umutekano byagaragaye mu Rwanda muri iyo myaka abakerarugendo bagiye bagabanuka ndetse mu 1994 ho nta mukerarugendo n’umwe wabonetse mu Rwanda.

Kuva mu 1995 kugeza mu 1997, abakerarugendo batangiye kuza ariko ari bake ku buryo buri mwaka iyi pariki itasurwaga n’abagera ku 4.000. Gusa mu 2004 bariyongereye cyane barenga 15.000.

Raporo y’Ikigo cy’Igihugu Gishinzwe Ibarurishamibare, NISR, yo mu 2020 igaragaza ko kuva mu 2005 kugeza mu 2017, Pariki y’Akagera yasuwe n’abantu bagera ku 321.745, mu gihe Pariki y’Ibirunga icumbikiye ingagi yasuwe n’abagera ku 308.333 naho iya Nyungwe isurwa na 93.528 muri icyo gihe.

-  Icumbikiye inyamaswa eshanu nini z’inkazi

Inzovu, inkura, ingwe, imbogo n’intare ni inyamaswa eshanu z’inkazi wakwita ba shebuja ba Pariki y’Akagera kuko ni za mudakorwaho ndetse ntizipfa kuboneka henshi. Izi ni zo zikurura ba mukerarugendo basura iyi pariki kuruta uko basura izindi zo mu Rwanda ndetse abenshi mu bazisura bahamya ko ari zo zibashimisha.

Uwitwa Haya Bajnouj wo muri Dubai waganiriye na RBA ubwo yari amaze gusura iyi pariki mu 2019, yavuze ko yanejejwe n’urugendo yagiriyemo kuva yatangira ingendo zo gusura.

Yagize ati “Nasuye Pariki y’Igihugu y’Akagera, iki ni cyo gikorwa cyanjye cya mbere cyo gusura cyanejeje. Nishimye cyane, sinzi aho nzongera kubibona. Nabonye inzovu, imparage, imbogo n’izindi nyamaswa ariko izanshimishije cyane ni inzovu nari nanejejwe no gusura ingagi ariko na hano biranshimishije.”

Izi nyamaswa eshanu z’inkazi kugira ngo zibe muri iyi pariki, hagiye habaho ubufatanye bukomeye bwa Leta y’u Rwanda kuko nk’intare zari zarazimiye mu 2000, inkura na zo ari uko ndetse n’izindi nyamaswa.

Mu 2015 nyuma y’imyaka 15 Pariki y’Akagera itarangwamo Intare, Urwego rw’Igihugu rw’Iterambere, RDB rufatanyije na ‘African Parks’ [iyigenzura] bagejeje mu Rwanda intare zirindwi zirimo iz’ingore eshanu zivuye muri Afurika y’Epfo ndetse mu 2017 hazanywe izindi ntare ebyiri z’ingabo.

Mu 2020, nyuma y’imyaka itanu gusa zigejejwe mu Rwanda, African Parks yatangaje ko izi ntare ziyongerereye nyuma yo kwikuba inshuro enye.

Muri Gicurasi 2017, inkura z’umukara 18 zari zimaze imyaka icumi zarazimiye zagejejwe muri pariki na zo zivanywe muri Afurika y’Epfo. Muri Kamena 2019, nabwo Pariki y’Akagera yakiriye izindi eshanu zavuye muri Repubulika ya Czech.

Kongera umubare w’inyamaswa muri iyi pariki biri mu bituma abakerarugendo barushaho kwiyongera kuko baba bashaka kureba ubwoko bwinshi bw’inyamaswa zidasanzwe kandi bazisanze ahantu hamwe.

-  Ibarizwamo ubwoko bw’inyamaswa burenga 13.000

Uretse izi nyamaswa eshanu z’inkazi, Pariki y’Akagera icumbikiye ubundi bwoko bw’inyamaswa z’inyamabere zirenga 13.000 ndetse harimo n’ubwoko bw’inyoni burenga 490.

Muri izo nyamaswa harimo Twiga, izwiho kuba ndende cyane kuko amaguru yayo yonyine areshya na metero 1.82, irisha ibyatsi byo hejuru ku biti kuko ari ndende ndetse ifite n’ururimi rureshya na santimetero 53 ndetse ubu burebure bwayo ni bwo buyifasha mu mibereho yayo ya buri munsi.

Muri iyi pariki kandi habamo imvubu ziba mu mazi, impyisi, zikunda kuboneka nijoro, isatura zikunze kwitwa ingurube z’ishyamba, ingona ziba mu biyaga by’iyi pariki, inzoka, inyamaswa zitwa inkorongo zibonega gake cyane, ihene z’ishyamba zikunda kwibasirwa cyane n’inyamaswa z’inkazi, imparage, isha, inyamaswa zitwa ibitera, impala n’izindi.

Habamo kandi inyoni z’ubwoko bwinshi nk’izizwi nka Black-headed Gonolek, ziba zifite umutwe w’umukara n’igihimba gisa n’umutuku, hari ibisiga byitwa Lizard Bizzard byiza cyane bifite amabara y’umweru n’umukara avangavanze, igisiga izwi ku izina rya Murobyi kimeze nk’icyambaye karuvati y’umweru gifite umunwa w’umuhondo, inyoni za African Leader, iyitwa Marabout stork yenda kumera nk’umusambi n’izindi zitandukanye.

Izi nyamaswa n’inyoni ziba muri iyi pariki ziba ziri hirya no hino mu bice byayo ku buryo bishimisha uwaje kuzireba, ndetse ikunda gusurwa cyane n’abanyeshuri n’abarimu barenga 2000 buri mwaka bagiye mu rugendoshuri.

-  Akagera ni yo Pariki nini muri enye z’igihugu

Pariki y’Akagera icyemezwa n’Abakoloni b’Ababiligi mu 1934, yari ifite ubuso bungana na kilometero kare 2.500, ni ukuvuga ko yanganaga n’Umujyi wa Kigali wongeyeho Akarere ka Bugesera n’aka Kamonyi. Yari igizwe n’inyamaswa nyinshi zirimo n’imbwa z’ishyamba kugeza ubu zitakibamo.

Ubu iyi pariki ifite ubuso bungana na kilometero kare 1.122. Nubwo yagabanutse mu buso ariko ni yo nini muri Pariki zose u Rwanda rufite kuko Pariki y’Ibirunga ifite ubuso bwa kilometero kare 160. Igizwe n’ibirunga, amashyamba arimo ibiti by’ubwoko butandukanye, icumbikiye ingagi ziboneka gusa mu birunga, inkende n’izindi.

Pariki y’Igihugu ya Nyungwe yo ifite kilomotero kare 150, ikaba ari nto mu zindi zose kubera inkongi za hato na hato, ba rushimusi ndetse n’abaturage batemaga amashyamba. Yemejwe nka Pariki mu 1903 n’Abakoloni b’Abadage. Ubu icumbikiye ubwoko bunyuranye bw’inkende ndetse n’inyoni z’ubwoko bwinshi ndetse ni yo ibamo ikiraro cyo hejuru kizwi nka “Canopy walk’’ utasanga ahandi muri Afurika y’Uburasirazuba, ndetse wanakibona hake muri Afurika.

Indi Pariki ni iya Gishwati-Mukura ifite kilometero kare 35 [hegitari 3558], harimo icyanya cya Gishwati gifite ubuso bungana na hegitari 1570 n’icya Mukura kingana na hegitari 1988. Yemejwe nka Pariki y’Igihugu mu 2016. Ubu ituyemo ubwoko butandukanye bw’ibiti bugera kuri 60, ubwoko butandukanye bw’inkende ndetse n’ubw’inyoni bugera kuri 395.

Ingwe zo muri Pariki y'Akagera zikurura ba mukerarugendo baturutse hirya no hino ku Isi
Inkende ziboneka hafi y'inyubako zicumbikamo ba mukerarugendo muri Pariki y'Akagera
Inkura ni zimwe mu nyamaswa zari zarazimiye muri Pariki y'Akagera ariko zongeye kugarurwamo mu 2017
Intare na zo ni inyamaswa zari zaracitse gusa kuva zagarurwa mu Rwanda mu 2015 zarorotse
Intare ni imwe mu nyamaswa ikundwa na benshi basura Pariki y'Akagera
Inyoni ya Black headed Gonolek iri mu biguruka biba mu Akagera
Inzovu ni imwe mu nyamaswa zikundwa n'abasura Pariki y'Akagera
Inzovu ni inyamaswa zirya ibyatsi ndetse zikunda kuba ku mazi
Inzovu zifite ubushobozi buhambaye bwo kuzirikana ibyo zabonye
Isatura abarinda pariki bemeza ko ihubuka cyane. Igaragara nk'inyamahane
Isatura iri mu bwoko bw'inyamaswa abatemberera muri Pariki y'Akagera bashobora gusura
Isha na zo ni inyamaswa ziboneka muri iyi pariki ku bwinshi
Iyi nyamaswa imeze nk'ihene y'ishyamba ikunda kwibasirwa n'iz'inkazi zitungwa n'inyama
Lizzard Bizzard ni igisiga cyiza kiba kiri mu biti by'Akagera
Pariki y'Akagera ibamo ibiyaga byinshi birimo na Ihema
Pariki y'Akagera irimo imihanda ireshya n'ibilometero 120 ifasha ba mukeruragendo kureba neza inyamaswa
Pariki y'Akagera igizwe n'imirambi ku buryo uyirimo abasha kureba ahantu kure
Twiga ikunda kurisha ubwatsi bwo hejuru kubera uburebure bwayo
Aho bicara bari kuruhuka baba bitegeye amazi n'inyamaswa zikunda kubarizwamo
Biba ari byiza kubona ikivunge cy'imbogo ziruka. Ni ishusho ishobora kuba imbonekarimwe mu maso ya mukerarugendo
Bivugwa ko muri iyi pariki hari inkorongo zitageze no mu ijana bituma iboneka gake cyane
Pariki y'Akagera irimo ubwoko bw'inyoni bugera kuri 490
Igitera cyicaye kiri kuruhuka
Iki gisiga kizwi ku izina rya Murobyi nacyo ugisanga muri iyi pariki
Imbogo ni inyamaswa zizwiho kugira amahane cyane
Imparage ni inyamaswa iryoheye ijisho
Imparage zizwiho kugira amabara ateye amabengeza zikunda kugenda ziri hamwe
Imvubu nubwo zikunda kwibera mu mazi hari ubwo ziza kurisha ku gasozi
Habamo ubwoko bw'inyoni butandukanye
Pariki y'Akagera ibarizwamo amoko atandukanye y'inyamaswa zikurura ba mukerarugendo
Hashize imyaka 87 Pariki y’Akagera ishinzwe n’Ababiligi bakoronizaga u Rwanda
Muri iyi pariki hari aho ba mukerarugendo baruhukira mu gihe bari kuyitemberamo
Iyi nyubako irimo n'aho ba mukerarugendo bashobora gufatira ifunguro
Ba mukerugendo bashobora no kubona aho bakarabira nyuma yo gusura inyamaswa zitandukanye
Iyi nyubako ifite aho abasuye Akagera barara ndetse baba bitegeye ibyiza bitatse iyi pariki

Amafoto: Niyonzima Moïse

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