IGIHE

Amahoro ntazaboneka muri RDC ibi nibidakurikizwa

0 24-11-2022 - saa 15:44, Marc Hoogsteyns

Ibikubiye muri iyi nyandiko ni ibitekerezo bwite bya Marc Hoogsteyns. Ni umunyamakuru wabaye ndetse akorera mu Karere k’Ibiyaga Bigari igihe kirekire. Azi amateka y’ibihugu byo mu Karere ndetse yakoze inkuru zitandukanye zigaruka kuri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu 1994 ndetse n’intambara zo muri Repubulika Iharanira Demokarasi ya Congo.

Twabonye urupapuro rusinye rw’imyanzuro y’inama y’abayobozi bo muri Angola nyuma y’inama yigaga ku nzira zo kugarura amahoro nyuma y’intambara ishyamiranyije M23 n’Ingabo za RDC muri Kivu.

Benshi mu banye-Congo babikurikiranira hafi twaganiriye kugira ngo batange igitekerezo cy’uko bakiriye ibiri muri iyo myanzuro, babusanyije n’ibyanditse ku rupapuro. Biragaragara ko amahoro arambye muri Kivu, azakomeza kuvugwa mu mpapuro mu gihe ibintu bikurikira bitubahirijwe:

  • Biragoye kuganira ku mahoro hagati y’impande ebyiri zahejeje inguni, aho rumwe rutemerewe kwitabira ameza y’ibiganiro. Kinshasa ifata M23 nk’umutwe w’iterabwoba, ndetse bisa n’aho yirengagiza ko mu 2013 hari amasezerano bemeranyije yo gushyira abarwanyi bayo muri FARDC no kugira uruhare mu gucyura impunzi ibihumbi z’Abagogwe (Abanye-Congo b’Abatutsi). Gusa ibyo ntibyigeze biba.

Nta muntu n’umwe wari witeze ko M23 yakongera kubura imirwano vuba: buri gitero cyayo kuri FARDC cyasigaga igisirikare cya Congo gitsinzwe, kibuze intwaro n’amasasu, bigatuma M23 ikwiza ibikoresho. Ku rundi ruhande, M23 ishaka ko habaho ibiganiro ariko Kinshasa yarabyanze.

  • Umuryango mpuzamahanga n’abayobozi i Kinshasa bakwiriye kumenya ko guhengekera ibiri kubera muri Kivu ku bitugu bya Guverinoma y’u Rwanda ari amakosa.

Hari icyo umuntu yakwita nk’impuhwe zigirirwa M23 mu Rwanda ariko uruhare ruziguye rwa RDF (Igisirikare cy’u Rwanda) muri Kivu y’Amajyaruguru, ni ibintu bidafitiwe gihamya. Usibye no muri iki gihe, amahanga yananiwe kumenya neza ibiri kuba hagati y’imiryango y’Abatutsi muri Congo, mu Rwanda no mu Burundi; abenshi basangiye inkomoko, abandi bafite ubwenegihugu bubiri cyangwa se babaye mu buhunzi muri ibyo bihugu cyangwa se abavandimwe babo babubayemo.

Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu 1994 mu Rwanda, yaremye ukwiyumvanamo gukomeye kurushaho: bose bumva ko kugira ngo babashe kubaho, bakwiriye gushyigikirana.

Bamwe mu bakomeye muri M23 bigeze kuba muri RPA mu myaka yashize, ni abantu batojwe neza. Nyuma yaho, bashatse abandi babiyungaho muri M23. Abandi nabo bavuye mu nkambi aho bari bamaze igihe kinini muri Uganda bategereje igisubizo gishingiye ku mahoro ku hazaza h’imiryango yabo ngo isubire iwabo muri Congo.

Inyeshyamba za Laurent Nkunda zarananiwe mu 2004, kimwe na Sultani Makenga mu 2012. Magingo aya, izi nyeshyamba zitandukanye n’izo mu myaka yabanje: kuri iyi nshuro ntabwo ziteganya gusubira inyuma! Ntabwo amasezerano yari yarumvikanyweho yigeze ashyirwa mu bikorwa. Kuba byonyine Kagame ubwe atari mu nama y’i Luanda birasa n’aho Kigali irambiwe imikino Kinshasa iri kugerageza gukina.

  • Umuryango mpuzamahanga ukwiriye kumenya ko ikibazo cya M23 ari gito muri byinshi igihugu cyasenyutse mu ngeri zose gifite, aho imitwe yitwaje intwaro irenga 100 yidegembya.

Imyinshi muri yo ikorana n’abanyapolitiki ba RDC bamunzwe na ruswa. Indi nka FDLR yo yarabungabunzwe ku buryo yifashishwa mu guhangana na M23.

Laurent Kabila yarabitangije, umuhungu we Joseph akomeza uyu mugenzo, amukorera mu ngata. Perezida wa Kinshasa uriho, yashyigikiye FDLR, ayongerera ubushobozi burimo intwaro nshya n’impuzankano. FDLR ifatwa nk’umutwe w’iterabwoba ku rwego mpuzamahanga, ndetse n’ubu iracyateje umutekano muke mu karere.

  • Amahanga akwiriye kumenya ko impamvu ya mbere y’umutekano muke mu karere ari ahanini imikorere ya FARDC. Uru rwego rukwiriye kwegerwa n’umuryango mpuzamahanga, rukitabwaho nk’uko indi mitwe yitwaje intwaro ifatwa. Miliyari z’amadolari nyinshi zimaze gukoreshwa mu kubaka inzego za Loni, ariko mu gihe cyose zakomeza gukorera mu mutaka wa FARDC, nta mahoro azaboneka mu karere.
  • Mu mboni z’abasesenguzi benshi, iyi gahunda ya EAC yo kohereza ingabo mu karere, ni iyo kwibazaho: mu gihe nta buryo buhari bufatika bw’imikorere yazo, igisirikare buri cyose gifite gahunda zacyo, kuba ibihugu bimwe bya EAC bifite uruhande bishinja cyangwa se bifite ibyo bishinjwa, ni ibintu byatuma hibazwa ku musaruro.

Ikindi ni gute ingabo za Kenya zizitwara mu gihe M23 izaba itangiye kuzirasaho ubwo bazaba bagerageje kuyikura mu birindiro yigaruriye? Mu gihe cyose umuryango mpuzamahanga uzakomeza gufata abanyapolitiki ba Kinshasa badashobotse, nta kizashoboka. Kenya yishyize mu mutego aho abaturage bazayishinja kutagira icyo ikora cyangwa se M23 ishobora kutazihangana ikarwana mu gihe Abanyakenya bazaba bayigabyeho ibitero.

  • Icya nyuma, amahanga akwiriye kumva ko hari imvugo z’urwango zishingiye ku moko zikomeje kwibasira Abatutsi, zishobora gushyira Perezida Tshisekedi mu bibazo adashobora kwikuramo. Buri munsi ubwicanyi bw’abatutsi buba muri RDC, bikagaragazwa ku mbuga nkoranyambaga. Bishobora kuzagera igihe amazi yarenze inkombe…

Mu gihe ayo mahame yoroshye n’izo ngingo bitubahirijwe, ubugizi bwa nabi muri aka karere ntibuzigera buhagarara.

Muri RDC habarirwa imitwe yitwaje intwaro irenga 100 ariko ntijya ivugwa, havugwa M23 gusa
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