IGIHE

Ni gute plastique zangiza ubuzima bwacu n’ibidukikije?

0 13-01-2021 - saa 16:53, Dufitumukiza Salathiel

Mu buzima bwacu bwa buri munsi dukenera ibidufasha gukora igikorwa iki n’iki. Kugeza ubu ibyinshi mu byo dukoresha bikozwe muri plastique uhereye ku buroso bw’amenyo wifashisha buri gitondo, ukageza ku myenda twambara.

Bisa n’ibigoye cyane kuba wajya ahantu runaka ntuhasange igikozwe muri plastique. Tekereza uhereye aho wicara, aho urira, aho urara n’aho unyura, urasanga ahenshi uhabona ibikozwe muri plastique. Uwavuga ko byamaze kuba kimwe bigize ubuzima bwacu ntiyaba abeshye.

Ushobora gutekereza ko kuba ibikozwe muri plastique bisa n’ibyamaze kuba igice kinini cy’ubuzima bwacu byatuma tuzifata nk’ikintu cyiza. Nyamara abashakashatsi bagaragaza ko bigira ingaruka zikomeye ku buzima bwacu no ku bidukikije muri rusange.

Mu 2020 ubushakashatsi bwagaragaje ko ibikoresho bya plastique bimaze kugera mu nyanja bibarirwa muri miliyari ibihumbi 5, bipima toni zisaga ibihumbi 270. Ibyo bisobanuye ko miliyoni umunani z’ibikozwe muri plastique zijya mu nyanja buri munsi.

Ni ibintu biteye ubwoba kuko amazi y’inyanja agize 97% by’amazi yose aba ku Isi.Ushobora kwibaza uti ”Kwangirika kw’amazi y’inyanja bivuze iki?”

Kugeza ubu habarurwa amoko arenga 700 y’ibinyabuzima byo mu mazi agerwaho cyane n’ingaruka z’ibikozwe muri plastique, ibintu biteje inkeke ko byazarangira ibyo binyabuzima binashizeho burundu.

Uretse amoko atandukanye y’ibinyabuzima biyabamo, amazi ni ikintu nkenerwa cyane mu buzima bwa buri munsi bw’ikiremwamuntu, kuko niyo afasha mu miterere y’ikirere kubona umwuka duhumeka, ndetse akaba isoko abarenga miliyari bakuramo intungamubiri.

Tuvuze ku miterere y’ikirere, ni kimwe mu bibazo bihangayikishije Isi muri rusange, aho mu 2015 ibihugu 196 byashyize umukono ku masezerano y’ubufatanye mu guhangana n’imihindagurikire y’ikirere ikomeje kugira ingaruka zitandukanye ku batuye isi.

Imyuzure, izuba n’imvura y’igihe kirekire, imiyaga ifite ingufu ituruka mu nyanjya bikomeje kurangwa hirya no hino ku Isi bikanahitana ubuzima bw’abantu, bituruka kuri iyo mihindagurikire y’ikirere.

Imyaka ya 2016, 2020 na 2019 yagaragajwe nk’iyaranzwe n’ubushyuhe bukabije mu myaka isaga 140 ishize. Iyo bivuzwe akenshi dutekereza ku byotsi byoherezwa mu kirere n’umuriro cyangwa imashini, nyamara ugenzuye uhereye ku ntangiriro usanga ibikoresho bya plastique bitiza umurindi izo mpinduka.

Impamvu ni uko umwuka wa Dioxide de Carbone (CO2) uzwiho guhumanya ikirere uboneka mu bigize Carbone . Si uwo gusa kuko hanabonekamo umwuka wa Methane (CH4) ukubye CO2 inshuro zisaga umunani mu kwanduza ikirere.

Gusa CO2 niyo igira uruhare runini mu kwangiza ikirere kuko iboneka no mu myotsi y’umuriro ucanishijwe amakara cyangwa inkwi.

Ingaruka kandi zirenga ikirere n’amazi zikagera no ku butaka, ahantu abenshi mu batuye Isi bakesha amaramuko. Ishami ry’Umuryango w’Abibumbye rishizwe Ibiribwa(FAO) rivuga ko 60% by’abatuye isi batunzwe n’ubuhinzi.

Ibyo birumvikanisha uburemere bwo kuba plastique ziri mu butaka n’ibishanga bitekerezwa ko zikubye inshuro ziri hagati y’enye na 23 iziba mu nyanja.

Igihangayikishije kurushaho, hagaragazwa ko ibikozwe muri plastique bishobora kumara imyaka igihumbi bitarabora, ari nako byangiza ubutaka.

Ubutaka nibumara guhumanywa gutyo, bizagorana ko imyaka imwe n’imwe yongera kwera, ibizateza inzara izahungabanya umubare munini w’abatuye.

Inyamaswa zo mu gasozi no mu mashyamba nazo zigerwaho n’ingaruka za plastique mu buryo bumwe cyangwa ubundi, nk’urugero iyo zigiye kunywa amazi zikanywa arimo utuvungukira twa plastique, tuzigera mu nda tukazihitana.

Birumvikana ko buri kinyabuzima kiri mu Isi kigerwaho n’ingaruka z’ibikozwe muri plastique, ariko kugeza ubu hirya no hino hariyongera inganda zibikora. Mu 2019, hagarahajwe ko isoko ryabyo ryari rifite agaciro ka miliyari 450$, rirya isataburenge amasoko y’ubwubatsi n’andi mu kugira agaciro kanini.

Ku rundi ruhande, nubwo bwose izo ngaruka mbi zigaragazwa byagorana ko tubaho tudakoresha ibikozwe muri plastique. Haba ibihugu byateye imbere cyangwa ibikiri mu nzira y’amajyambere,byose bikoresha kenshi ibikozwe muri plastique.

Ni muri urwo rwego abantu basabwa kutajugiunya ibikozwe muri plastique aho babonye hose, ahubwo bakabikusanya kugira ngo bisubizwe mu nganda bikorwemo ibindi (recycling), hagamijwe kurinda ko bikomeza gukwirakwira mu mazi n’ubutaka.

U Rwanda rwo rufite umwihariko wo gushishikariza abantu bose gukoresha ibikoresho bisaza vuba mu mwanya w’ibikozwe muri plastique aho bishoboka, nk’aho gukoresha amashashi bagakoresha ibyo gupfunyikamo bibora.

Abashakashatsi batandukanye basanga kugira ngo hagabanywe ingaruka z’ibikozwe muri plastique ku kirere, inganda zikora ibyo bikoresho zabikora zitifashishije CO2 na CH4.

Ibijyanye n’ibikozwe muri plastique bidashobora gukurwamo ibindi, byo biracyari ikibazo cyihariye kuko no kubitwika byakongera ibyuka bihumanya ikirere byavuzwe haruguru.

Ubwiyongere bwa plastique mu nyanja ni ikibazo gikomeye ku bidukikije
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