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Byinshi ku kayunguruzo k’imirasire y’izuba gakomeje guhangayikisha Isi

2 26-10-2019 - saa 11:22, Ndayikunda Josué

Ubusugire bw’akayunguruzo k’imirasire y’izuba ‘Ozone’, ni kimwe mu bihangayikishije Isi ku buryo ingamba nyinshi zikomeje kugenda zifatwa mu kukarinda kwangirika kubera ingaruka byagira ku mibereho ya muntu n’ikitwa ikinyabuzima cyose.

Abahanga bavuga ko aka kayunguruzo ari umwuka uboneka mu kirere ku bilometero hagati ya 15-30 uvuye ku butaka, ukaba utandukanye n’umwuka abantu bahumeka wa Oxygène.

Abantu benshi bakunze kwibaza icyo ako kayunguruzo k’imirasire y’izuba kayungurura, imiterere yako n’ingano gafite.

Umwarimu mu Ishami rya Kaminuza y’u Rwanda y’Ubumenyi n’Ikoranabuhanga mu ishami ry’ubutabire, Dr. Birame Sekomo Christian, avuga ko imirasire y’izuba ifite imbaraga n’ubukana butandukanye.

Asobanura ko iyo imirasire y’izuba imanutse ivuye mu isanzure, umwuka wa Ozone uhita utangira kuyiyungurura ikagira iyo yemerera kugera ku isi (ari ryo zuba tubona), hakaba n’imirasire yitwa ‘Ultraviolet’ ifite ubukana bwangiza igera ku kayunguruzo k’imirasire y’izuba igahita isubira mu kirere kubera ko kaba katayemereye ko ihita.

Gusa iyo akayunguruzo k’imirasire y’izuba kangiritse, ya mirasire ifite ubukana ibasha kukanyuramo bikagira ingaruka ku bantu n’ibindi binyabuzima.

Ku bavuga ko akayunguruzo k’imirasire y’izuba wakabonesha amaso cyangwa ari ikintu gifatika, Dr. Birame avuga ko baba bibeshya cyane kuko ni umwuka ntabwo ari ikintu gifatika, nta nubwo wakabonesha amaso.

Uko akayunguruzo k’imirasire y’izuba kangirika

Dr Birame avuga ko kwangirika kw’akayunguruzo k’imirasire y’izuba bituruka ku kuba katewe n’ibindi binyabutabire bituruka ahanini mu byo dukora mu nganda zacu na gaz dukoresha mu byuma bikonjesha nka za firigo n’ibindi bitanga ubuhehere mu nzu z’abantu no mu modoka.

Ibyo binyabutabire byangiza akayunguruzo k’imirasire y’izuba birimo Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), Hydrobromofluorocarbons (HBFCs), Halons, Methyl bromide na Carbon tetrachloride.

Imyuka kandi irimo ibinyabutabire nka chlorine, Bromine na Fluorine, iyo izamutse igahura n’umwuka wa Ozone ari ko kayunguruzo k’imirasire y’izuba iragasenya.

Uyu mwarimu avuga ko kuva ibihugu bitandukanye ku isi byashyira umukono ku masezerano ya Montreal yari agamije kurebera hamwe uburyo bwo kubungabunga akayunguruzo k’imirasire y’izuba mu 1987, hagiye habaho impinduka nziza.

Ibi abishingira ko mu bipimo byafashwe mu 1990 byerekanye ko aka kayunguruzo karimo gusubirana. Dr Birame avuga ko amasezerano ya Montreal ari amwe mu yatanze umusaruro ugaragara ugereranyije n’andi agenda asinywa.

Mu 2016 mu Rwanda hasinywe amasezerano ya Kigali agamije kurwanya iyoherezwa mu kirere ry’imyuka ituruka mu byuma bikonjesha. Amasezerano ya Kigali (Kigali Amendment) avugurura amasezerano ya Montreal yerekeye imyuka yangiza akayunguruzo k’izuba yasinywe mu 1987.

Isano y’ubushyuhe bw’izuba na Ozone

Dr. Birame avuga ko kuba izuba ryavuye ari ryinshi ku Isi ubushyuhe bukaba bwinshi nta sano bifitanye n’akayunguruzo k’imirasire y’izuba ahubwo ubwiyongere bw’abantu ku isi, ibikorwa abantu bagenda bakora nko gutwika imodoka, ari byo bishobora gutera ubwiyongere bw’ubushyuhe ku isi.

Ati “Ntaho bihurira, tugomba kumenya ko isi ari yayindi idahinduka ariko umubare w’abantu uriyongera n’ibikorwa by’abantu bikiyongera umunsi ku munsi. Ni ukuvuga ngo hari iyindi myanda twe tujugunya hanze igira ingaruka mbi ku bihe. Hari indi myuka twohereza mu kirere urugero nko gutwika imodoka na mazutu, ibyo bituma ubushyuhe bwiyongera ku isi.”

Yongeraho ko gutwika amavuta y’indege, ibiti n’ibindi bintu byose byifitemo izindi ngufu, bizamura umwuka mubi wa CO2 ugira uruhare mu kongera ubushyuhe ku isi.

Ati “Iyo utwitse ikintu gisanzwe gifite ingufu muri cyo, izo ngufu ntabwo zitakara ahubwo zirimuka zigahindura iyindi shusho. Iyo utwitse igiti hasigara ivu, ariko se bwa bunini bw’igiti bwagiye he? Bwahindutse umwuka bujya mu kirere.”

Ingaruka zo kwangirika kw’akayunguruzo k’imirasire y’izuba

Ingaruka za mbere zo kwangirika kw’akayunguruzo k’imirasire y’izuba ni uko urusobe rw’ibinyabuzima byangirika. Amafi mu nyanja aragabanuka kuko ibiribwa by’amafi byo bihita byangirika iyo bihuye n’imirasire ifite ubukana ya ultra violet [ifite ubukana].

Amababi ku bimera nayo arangirika iyo yahuye n’imirasire ifite ubukana agahinduka umukara. Ibyo bituma igikorwa cya photosynthèse gituma amababi yaba icyatsi nk’uko bisanzwe kitaba kubera iyo mirasire mibi.

Dr. Birame akomeza avuga ko kwangirika kw’akayunguruzo k’imirasire y’izuba bigira ingaruka no ku bantu nko kuzana ishaza mu jisho, no kurwara kanseri y’uruhu.

Buri mwaka iyi myuka ifite ubukana yiyongera mu kirere ku kigero cya 10% na 15 %. Ikibi cyayo kandi iguma mu kirere imyaka igera kuri 29.

Dr. Birame avuga ko akayunguruzo k'izuba gafatiye runini Isi akaba ari yo mpamvu kaba kagomba kubungabungwa
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