IGIHE

Intambara za Kanyarwanda, akaboko ka Habyarimana n’uruhare rwa Léopold II mu kibazo cya Congo

0 22-06-2022 - saa 07:41, Ndahayo Emmanuel

Kuva Umwami w’u Bubiligi, Léopold II yakwima ingoma mu 1865, yahoranaga intimba ku mutima yaterwaga no kuyobora igihugu gito kandi kigendera ku Itegeko Nshinga, bikajyana no kwibona nk’umukene kuko atagiraga umutungo ufatika, bigatuma yireba akiburira agaciro, nubwo yari atangiye urugendo rwo kuba Umwami wa kabiri w’u Bubiligi.

Ku myaka 30, Léopold II yari afite icyizere cyo kuzahindura ibintu ndetse yari yaramaze gutegura gahunda y’ibikorwa, yari ikubiyemo gushaka igice cy’Isi u Bubiligi buzakoloniza, akagikoresha mu nyungu ze bwite bityo akagira ubutunzi buherekejwe n’imbaraga. Ibi yari yarabyigiye ku bindi bihugu byakoronije, birimo u Bufaransa n’u Bwongereza byari hafi aho mu Burayi kandi byarakoronije ibice binini by’Isi.

Rimwe ubwo yarimo gusoma ibinyamakuru, uyu Mwami yageze ku nkuru y’umunyamakuru Henry Stanley warimo guca ibintu bigacika muri icyo gihe, kubera ingendo yakoreraga ku Mugabane wa Afurika anyuze mu ruzi rwa Congo, aho yifuzaga kuzinjira imbere mu butaka bwa Afurika yo Hagati, ahantu hatari hazwi cyane muri ibyo bihe.

Kuva mu kinyejana cya 15, byari bizwi ko Ubwami bwa Congo bufite umutungo kamere wari ugezweho muri ibyo bihe urimo amahembe y’inzovu n’ibindi bitandukanye ndetse ibi ni imwe mu mpamvu Stanley yinjiye imbere mu mashyamba ya Congo, aho yagendaga arwana inkundura mu guhangana n’amoko ataramuhaga ikaze, urugendo rwe rugakorwa rukurikira Umugezi wa Congo.

Leopord II yakomeje gukurikirana Stanley bya hafi kuko ingendo ze zahuzaga neza n’ibyifuzo bye, maze mu 1876, atumiza Inama y’abayobozi n’abakire baturutse mu bihugu birenga 30 by’u Burayi, yifuza kubagezaho igitekerezo yari afite cyo guteza imbere imibereho y’abaturage ba Congo na Afurika yo Hagati, bakabaho ubuzima nk’ubw’abazungu, bifataga nk’abateye imbere kurusha abandi bantu mu Isi y’icyo gihe.

Ni uko ishyirahamwe rya ‘International Association for the Exploration and Civilization of the Central Africa’ ryavutse, aho ryagombaga guhuza ibikorwa by’ibihugu byose bikoloniza Afurika, hakabaho gusangira amakuru no gukorera hamwe hirindwa amakimbirane.

Hagati aho, Léopold II yari yariyegereje Stanley cyane ku buryo akirangiraza ingendo ze muri Afurika, yamutumiye mu Bubiligi ndetse anamuha ubutumwa bwo gusubira muri Congo nk’umuhagarariye, aho yagombaga gukorana n’abayobozi b’amoko n’ibice bitandukanye kugira ngo basinyane amasezerano yemezaga ko ubutaka bwabo babushyize mu maboko y’Umwami Léopold II. Mu myaka itanu gusa, amasezerano arenga 450 yari amaze gusinywa.

Gusubiranamo kw’Abanyaburayi muri Afurika kwatumye Otto von Bismarck wayoboraga u Budage atumiza Inama izwi nka ‘Berlin Conference’ yari igamije kugabana neza Afurika, Léopold II wari mu bashyitsi b’imena ayikoresha asaba ko yahabwa uburenganzira bwo kugenzura Congo, aho yavugaga ko yifuza gukorerayo ibikorwa by’ubugiraneza bigamije guhindura imibereho y’Abanyafurika, ikamera nk’iy’Abanyaburayi.

Ati “Kujyana uburyo bwacu bw’imibereho mu gice cy’Isi itarageramo ni inshingano yacu muri ibi bihe by’iterambere.”

Mu buryo bwemewe n’amategeko, iyo nama yafashe icyemezo cyo kwegurira Léopold II ubutaka bwa Congo ikaba umutungo we ku giti cye, nubwo cyari igihugu gikubye icyo ategeka inshuro 80 zose. Iki gihugu cyahise gihabwa izina rya ’Congo Free State.’ Abaturage bamwe ba Congo bakoreshejwe imirimo y’agahato bagera ubwo barambirwa, bamwe batangira kwanga gukora abandi barema amatsinda mato agamije kwirwanaho.

Ibi byakorogoshoye Léopold II wari warashoye akayabo mu bucukuzi bw’amabuye y’agaciro ariko ataratangira kurya ku nyungu, ahanini bitewe n’uko amabuye nka coltan yari atarakenerwa cyane muri ibyo bihe, binajyanye n’uko ibihugu nk’u Bwongereza byari bifite inganda nyinshi muri ibyo bihe, nabyo byari bifite ibice by’Isi byakoronije, bityo kubona umutungo kamere atari ikibazo.

Icyakora Léopold II yari abizi ko ari ikibazo cy’igihe gusa ubundi ishoramari yakoze muri Congo rigatangira kubyara umusaruro, ndetse niko byagenze ahagana mu 1890 kugera mu ntangiriro z’ikinyejana cya 20, aho ubwiyongere budasanzwe bw’inganda mu Burayi bwatumye umutungo kamere urimo amabuye y’agaciro uhinduka imari ishyushye.

Ikibazo ni uko muri ibi bihe ubwo ibintu byari bitangiye kugenda neza, ari bwo Abanye-Congo batangiye kwivumbura, bamwe banga gusubira mu mirima n’ibirombe, abandi bakabikora biguru ntege ku buryo umusaruro watangiye kugabanuka mu buryo bugaragara.

Léopold II wari utangiye kubara akayabo azakura muri iri terambere ry’u Burayi, yarahiye kwihimura ku birabura bashaka kumukura amata ku munwa, ategeka ko hajyaho igisirikare cye cyihariye, kigomba guhangana n’abaturage bose banga gukora.

Iki gisirikare cya Léopold II, kizwi nka ‘Public Force,’ cyarimo abasore b’inkorokoro barenga ibihumbi 19, kikaba cyaratojwe neza, gihembwa neza kandi gifite uburenganzira buruta ubw’abandi baturage. Byari umugisha gushyirwa muri icyo gisirikare muri ibyo bihe. Aba basore bagize uruhare rufatika mu gucubya imyigaragambyo y’abaturage bangaga gukoreshwa uburetwa ariko hasigara bacye binangiye burundu, bakomeje gusaza imigeri banga gusubira mu birombe bya Léopold II.

Mu rwego rwo gutanga isomo, Léopold II utarigeze akandagira muri Congo na rimwe, yasabye igisirikare cye kujya gica ibice by’umubiri by’abaturage banze gukora kugira ngo bibere abandi isomo.

Abasirikare babanje kwinangira ariko hashyirwaho gahunda yo guhemba umusirikare werekanye igice cy’umubiri yaciye ku muturage, wafatwaga nk’umwanzi. Byaje kuba itegeko n’ikimenyetso cy’umusaruro w’abasirikare; uvuye ku rugamba wese akerekana igice cy’umubiri w’umwanzi yaciye, ari nacyo kimenyetso cy’uko yabaga yakoze akazi ke neza.

Iyi gahunda yagize ingaruka mbi kuko abasirikare bifuzaga guca iy’ubusamo mu kuzamurwa mu ntera, batangiye kujya baca ibice by’imibiri y’abaturage kabone nubwo baba bakoze imirimo y’ubucakara nk’uko babisabwe. Abasirikare bajyanaga ibyo bice bavuga ko bivunnye umwanzi nyamara bahohoteye abaturage batagize icyo babatwara.

Igisirikare cya Léopold II cyagize uruhare mu guca ibice by'umubiri by'Abanye-Congo bashinjwa kwanga gukorera mu mirima n'ibirombe bye

Byageze ubwo aba basirikare batangira guca ibiganza by’abana bato, bagaca iby’abasaza, abagore n’abandi baturage b’inzirakarengane. Ibi byanajyanaga no kubasahura utwabo, gufata abagore ku ngufu n’ibindi bikorwa by’ubukozasoni, byose bikamenyekana ariko ntibigire icyo bikorwaho n’ubuyobozi buhagarariye Umwami Léopold II. Amakuru avuga ko uyu Mwami na we ubwe yari azi ibi bikorwa ariko akinumira.

Mu gihe cy’imyaka 22 Léopold II yayoboye Congo nk’umutungo we, ibi bikorwa bikarishye byo guhana abaturage mu buryo bwa kinyamaswa, harimo kubica no kubaca ibice by’umubiri, byagize ingaruka ku barenga miliyoni 15. Icyakora nanone ubucuruzi bwa Léopold II bwarushijeho gutumbagira, aho mu gihe cye bwamwinjirije miliyari 1,1$ uyashyize mu gaciro k’amafaranga y’ubu, ibyatumaga aza mu bagabo ba mbere bakize cyane ku Isi muri ibyo bihe.

Uretse Léopold II n’umuryango we, umutungo wakuwe muri Congo ni wo wakoreshejwe n’imwe mu miryango ikize mu Bubiligi. Nk’ubu mu miryango 23 ya mbere ifite umutungo wihagazeho muri icyo gihugu, 13 yawukomoye ku bukoloni icyo gihugu cyakoze muri Congo.

Iri yicarubozo ryaje kumenyekana ku rwego mpuzamahanga, bituma ibihugu bitandukanye bisaba ko Léopold II yamburwa Congo, akoresha imbaraga zishoboka zose mu kwamagana uwo mugambi ariko birangira Congo yimuriwe mu mutungo w’u Bubiligi, uretse ko yishyuye miliyari 2$ (mu gaciro k’amafaranga akoreshwa ubu), nk’uko nawe wakwishyurwa mu gihe ugiye kugurisha umurima wawe.

Umwami Léopold II yayoboye Congo nk'igikingi cye

Igisiga cy’urwara runini cyimennye inda

Nyuma y’uko Léopold II yambuwe Congo, u Bubiligi bwahagaritse ibikorwa by’igisirikare cye, ariko ntibyakuraho imirimo imwe n’imwe yakorwaga n’abaturage, kandi atari bo bazayikuramo inyungu.

Ibikorwa byo gukoresha Abirabura mu bucukuzi bw’ibirombe n’ibindi nk’ibyo byarakomeje, ariko havuka ikibazo cy’uko abaturage benshi bari baramugaye, abandi barakanzwe n’imiterere y’akazi k’imbaraga ku buryo abakozi bari batangiye kugabanuka.

Hagati ya 1880 na 1920, bitekerezwa ko abaturage ba Congo bagabanutseho hafi kimwe cya kabiri, bava kuri miliyoni zirenga 20 baba miliyoni 10.

Ahagana mu 1930, hirya no hino ku Isi hari hatangiye gukwirakwira amajwi asaba impinduramatwara no kwigenga kwa Afurika. Ababiligi bari babizi neza ko ari ikibazo cy’igihe gusa mbere y’uko Abanye-Congo babirukana mu gihugu cyabo. Icyakora muri ibyo bihe, byari bimaze kugaragara neza ko iki gihugu gifite umutungo kamere mwinshi, ku buryo Ababiligi bifuzaga gukuramo mwinshi ushoboka mbere y’uko impinduramatwara isaba ubwigenge itangira kuvuza ubuhuha.

Icyakora kuko abaturage benshi ba Congo bari barishwe mu gihe cy’ubutegetsi bwa Léopold II, abandi benshi baramugajwe, imirima n’ibirombe by’abakoloni ntabwo byari bifite abakozi bahagije ugereranyije n’akazi kari gahari.

Mu gushaka igisubizo, u Bubiligi bwatereye ijisho ku Rwanda n’u Burundi, ibihugu bindi bwari bukolonije kandi bifite abaturage benshi ugereranyije n’ubuso bwabyo. Ni uko Abanyarwanda batangiye kwerekezwa muri Congo gukora mu mirima n’ibirombe by’Ababiligi, aho bajyanaga n’imiryango yabo kandi bagahabwa ubutaka bwo guturaho.

Abanyarwanda bajyanywe mu Bubiligi mu byiciro bitatu, byakozwe muri gahunda ya ‘Mission Immigration Banyarwanda’ yashyizwe mu bikorwa hagati ya 1937 na 1954. Muri rusange, habarurwa ko Abanyarwanda barenga ibihumbi 25 bagiye muri Congo muri ubu buryo. Aba bagize uruhare mu gukungahaza u Bubiligi kuko imitsi yabo yakoreshejwe mu gucukura amabuye yajyanwaga muri icyo gihugu.

Ivuka ry’Abavuga Ikinyarwanda muri Congo

Na mbere y’uko Abanyarwanda bajyanwa n’Ababiligi, mu Burasirazuba bwa Congo hari hasanzwe abaturage kavukire ariko bavuga Ikinyarwanda, batangiranye n’icyo gihugu kuva cyabaho.

Abanyamulenge bari mu bavuga Ikinyarwanda bageze mu Burasirazuba bwa Congo mbere, ahagana mu kinyejana cya 17. Aba bajyagayo bakurikiye ubwatsi bwiza bw’inka zabo, basangayo abandi kavukire bavuga Ikinyarwanda, babana na bo.

Mu Nama ya Berlin yo mu 1884 na 1885, ibihugu by’i Burayi byari byarigaruriye Afurika byemeranyije ku mipaka mishya yagombaga kugenga ibihugu bagenzura, nyuma y’uko bari bamaze igihe bapfa ubutaka kuri uyu Mugabane bari bakolonije.

Uburyo imipaka yaciwe bishingiye ku buryo karemano nko gushingira ku biyaga n’imigezi, imisozi n’ibibaya n’ibindi bitandukanye. U Rwanda ruri mu bihugu byahombeye bikomeye muri iri gabana kuko ibice rwari rufite mbere y’iyo Nama byagabanyijwe cyane.

Ku ruhande rwa Congo, u Rwanda rwatakaje ibice bya Goma, Masisi, Rutshuru, Idjwi mu gihe Mbarara na za Kisoro natwo twagiye kuri Uganda. Ibi byakozwe kuko u Budage bwari bwarakolonije u Rwanda, butifuzaga kugira imbaraga muri Afurika bityo u Bubiligi bwakolonije Congo n’u Bwongereza bwakoronije Uganda bigahabwa ubutaka mu buryo bworoshye.

Mu gihe inkubiri yo gushaka ubwigenge bwa Afurika yatangiraga gukaza umurego ahagana mu 1960, Ababiligi babonye neza ko umubare munini w’Abanyarwanda bimuriye muri Congo ushobora kuzateza ibibazo, bityo bategura Inama yiswe ‘Table ronde de Bruxelles ’ yemerejwemo ko abantu bose bari muri Congo ibona ubwigenge (ku itariki ya 30 Kamena 1960) bafite ubwenegihugu bwayo. Iki cyemezo cyatumye n’Abanyarwanda bari barahunze ibikorwa by’ubwicanyi bakorerwaga mu 1959, bahita babona ubwenegihugu.

Muri rusange, abaturage ba Congo bavuga Ikinyarwanda bagize 5% by’abatuye icyo gihugu bose. Abo baturage bagize ikizwi nka ‘Rwandophone’ kuko bakoresha Ikinyarwanda, ariko bakaba Abanye-Congo. Aba Banyarwanda batujwe mu bice bya Masisi (Gishari, Mokoto, Muvunyi, Bigiri na Bafuna) na Rutshuru (Mushari na Bwito).

Barimo ibyiciro by’ingenzi bigizwe n’Abanyabwisha baboneka cyane muri Teritwari ya Rutshuru n’Akace ka Jomba muri Kivu ya Ruguru. Muri utu duce kandi haboneka Abahutu n’Abatutsi, ibindi byiciro by’Abavuga Ikinyarwanda. Muri ibi bice, higanje Abahutu cyane.

Ikindi cyiciro ni icy’Abavuga IKinyarwanda batuye muri Teritwari ya Masisi n’Umujyi wa Goma muri Kivu ya Ruguru ndetse na Teritwari ya Kalehe muri Kivu y’Epfo, ahiganje Abatutsi.

Hari kandi Ikirwa cya Idjwi na cyo gituyeho abavuga IKinyarwanda mu gihe Abanyamulenge bari bamaze kuganza andi moko, ariko yasize urwikekwe n’urwango rwakomeje gututumba na nyuma yaho.

Nyuma y’ubwigenge, umwuka wakomeje kuba mubi hagati y’abaturage ba Congo bavuga Ikinyarwanda n’abatakivuga, babashinjaga kubatwara amasambu yabo nubwo bari barayahawe n’Ababiligi.

Mu matora y’abadepite mu 1964, abanyepolitiki bagerageje kuririra kuri urwo rwango, bavuga ko Abanye-Congo bavuga Ikinyarwanda batujuje ibyangombwa bityo ko badakwiriye gutora no gutorwa. Ibi byatumye abifuzaga kwiyamamaza bimwa ayo mahirwe. Iri hohoterwa bakorerwaga ryabateye umujinya, bituma binjira mu 1964 binjira mu Ntambara ya Kanyarwanda yari igamije kwirwanaho.

Mu 1965, Mobutu Sese Seko yafashe ubutegetsi, atangaza ko politiki y’amoko ikwiriye gushyirwaho iherezo, buri muturage wese uri muri Congo ntagire urwikekwe rwo kwitwa umunyamahanga, cyangwa ngo hagire uwumva ko ubwoko bwe buruta ubw’abandi. Ibi byatumye Intambara ya Kanyarwanda ihagarikwa, ariko urwikekwe hagati y’Abavuga Ikinyarwanda n’abandi baturage ba Congo rukomeza kubaho.

Icyakora muri rusange ibi byahaye Abavuga Ikinyarwanda agahenge, bamwe muri bo nka Bisengimana Rwema Barthélemy bagira imyanya ikomeye kuko yakuriye Ibiro bya Perezida Mobutu mu gihe cy’imyaka 10.

Umunyarwanda Barthélemy Bisengimana yagize uruhare mu guharanira uburenganzira bw'Aba-Rwandophone

Mobutu yazuye akaboze

Mu ntangiriro z’imyaka ya 1980, ubutegetsi bwa Mobutu bwatangiye kugaragaza ibimenyetso byo gucika intege, bityo na politiki ze zitangira gucika amazi.

Ubwo Mobutu yageraga ku butegetsi, Congo yari igihugu cya kabiri gifite inganda nyinshi ku Mugabane wa Afurika, inyuma ya Afurika y’Epfo. Nyamara mu 1979, ubushobozi bw’abaturage bwo guhaha bwaragabanutse cyane, bugera kuri 4% gusa ugereranyije n’uko bwanganaga mu 1960.

Muri rusange ubukungu bwarazamukaga, aho umusaruro mbumbe mu 1980 wari miliyari 14$, uvuye kuri miliyari 4.5$ mu 1965. Icyakora nk’uko raporo ya IMF yabigaragaje mu 1980, izamuka ry’ubu bukungu ntabwo ryageraga ku baturage bose, ahubwo ryari mu gatsiko k’abantu ba hafi na Mobutu, aho nawe ku giti cye yari yarikungahaje cyane. Uyu mugabo yapfuye abarirwa umutungo wa miliyari 5$.

Kubera kwikubira umutungo no kuba ubukungu bwa Congo bwari butangiye gusubira inyuma bitewe n’ibiciro by’amabuye y’agaciro bitari byifashe neza, Mobutu yatangiye kugaragazwa nk’umwe mu batera ibibazo mu gihugu, aho abarimo nka Cardinal Malula batangira kuvuga ko uyu mugabo akwiriye gukorwaho iperereza.

Mu 1983, Etienne Tshisekedi, umubyeyi wa Felix Tshisekedi uyoboye Congo uyu munsi, yifatanyije n’abandi badepite 12, bakora ibitaratekerezwaga ubwo beguraga ku myanya yabo, bakajya gushinga Ishyaka rya UDPS ryagombaga guhangana na MPR yari ishyaka rukumbi rya Mobutu. Icyo gihe Etienne Tshisekedi yari Perezida w’Inteko Ishinga Amategeko, ari na yo mpamvu igikorwa bakoze cyakanze Mobutu cyane, agahitamo guhana yihanukiriye abashatse kumurwanya.

Aba badepite barashwiragijwe bamburwa imitungo yabo, abana babo bakurwa mu mashuri abandi bakorerwa iyicarubozo ariko ibi byose ntibyatuma abarwanya Mobutu bacika intege, ahubwo barushaho kwiyongera.

Ahagana mu 1981, Jean Nguza Karl-i-Bond wabaye Minisitiri w’Intebe yashwanye na Mobutu ahungira mu Bubiligi aho yandikiye igitabo yise ‘Mobutu où l’incarnation du mal Zaïrois’ cyagarukaga ku ruhare rwa Mobutu mu bibazo bya Congo, birimo ruswa, icyenewabo n’ibindi bibazo.

Mu 1985, Léon Kengo wa Dondo na we wabaye Minisitiri w’Intebe yahunze igihugu, ageze mu Bubiligi atangira gushyira hanze amabanga ya Mobutu. Amagambo y’aba bagabo yasenye cyane ubuhangange bwa Mobutu imbere mu gihugu.

Kuko Mobutu yari atangiye gutakaza imbaraga, abayobozi bari munsi ye batangiye kwishora muri bya bikorwa by’amoko yari yaraciwe, Mobutu yanabimenya ntagire icyo abikoraho mu rwego rwo kwirinda kwiteranya n’abo bayobozi cyangwa abasirikare bakuru.

Byari nko kwemera kubashimisha kugira ngo batamwivumburaho bakaba batuma ubutegetsi bwe bujya mu kaga, dore ko bwari butangiye no kugana mu manga nyuma y’uko abaturage bavumbuye uburyo yiba umutungo w’igihugu.

Ku rundi ruhande, Mobutu na we yatangiye gukoresha iturufu y’Abavuga Ikinyarwanda mu rwego rwo kwirinda gukoma rutenderi ndetse no gusunikira ibibazo yateje ku bandi.

Mu 1970, nk’uko bigaragara mu nyandiko ’Making use of the past: The Rwandophone question and the ‘Balkanisation of the Congo’ yakozwe na Lars-Christopher Huening, icyo gihe, Mobutu yashyizeho itegeko riha ubwenegihugu Abanye-Congo bose barimo Abanyarwanda n’Abarundi bageze muri icyo gihugu mbere ya 1950. Bivugwa ko iri tegeko ryagizwemo uruhare n’Umunyarwanda Barthélemy Bisengimana.

Mu Nama Nkuru y’Ubusugire, itegeko ry’uko abaturage ba Congo ari abageze muri icyo gihugu mbere ya 1960 ryakuweho, hashyirwaho iry’uko abo baturage bagomba kuba barageze muri Congo mbere ya 1885.

Inama y'Ubusugire muri Congo, Conférence Nationale Souveraine, yemeje ko abanyamahanga barimo Aba-Rwandophone, bamburwa uburenganzira bw'ubwenegihugu bwabo

Habyarimana yakurikiranye impunzi zo mu 1959

Muri aka kavuyo kose, Perezida Juvénal Habyarimana yari afite ikibazo gikomeye cy’uko Abanyarwanda bari barahunze mu 1959 na 1973 bashobora kuzamuteza ibibazo, kuko bari barafatishije ubuzima, abana babo barize neza, abandi barabaye abacuruzi mbega ubona ko bisanze mu gihugu bakiteza imbere.

Ubu bwoba nibwo bwatumye Leta ye, cyane cyane inzego z’ubutasi, zitangira gushaka ubufatanye n’abayobozi b’Abahutu muri Kivu ya Ruguru n’Epfo, bagenda babahuza kugeza ubwo bashinze icyiswe Mutual Association of the Agriculturalists of the Virunga (Magrivi), ryari Ishyirahamwe ry’Abahutu bavuga Ikinyarwanda.

Intego nyamukuru ya Magrivi yari ukwigisha abo bahutu kwanga Abatutsi, inyigisho zakujijwe cyane zikagera no ku baturage b’andi moko ari muri Congo, menshi ugasanga ari kwifatanya n’Abahutu mu guhohotera Abatutsi.

Ibi byatumye amoko atari ay’abavuga Ikinyarwanda nk’Aba-Manyanga b’i Walikare, Aba-Bahunde b’i Masisi n’Aba-Bandande ba za Rutshuro, Butembe, Lubero na Beni bose bagenda bijandika mu bikorwa byo guhohotera Abatutsi.

Iby’ubu bwicanyi byaje kumenyekana cyane ubwo hicwaga umugore witwaga Theresa wari ufite hotel i Goma wiciwe iwe, bituma umugabo we wakoraga mu nzego z’ubutasi ahabwa uburenganzira bwo gukurikirana uwamwiciye umugore, abuhawe na Perezida Mobutu.

Byaje kumenyekana ko yishwe n’Abanyarwanda babiri bari basanzwe bagenda cyane mu bice bya Goma, batanga amakuru yaje kwerekana ko urupfu rwa Theresa rwagizwemo uruhare n’uhagarariye Ubutasi muri Perefegitura ya Gisenyi ndetse n’abandi bacuruzi bane b’Abahutu bari muri Magrivi.

Ku rundi ruhande, ibintu byari bikomeje kudogera muri Congo, abavuga Ikinyarwanda batangiye gukorerwa iyicarubozo mu rwego rukomeye, ndetse ibyabo birushaho kujya irudubi mu Nama y’Ubusugire (Conférence Nationale Souveraine, CNS), yari igamije gushakira umuti ibibazo byari mu gihugu, ikemeza ko hari abanyamahanga bari mu buyobozi bwa Congo, nyamara bashaka kuvuga Abavuga Ikinyarwanda.

Mu batunzwe urutoki harimo Rwakabuba Shinga wari warabaye mu myanya y’ubuyobozi nka minisitiri na depite kuva Congo yabona ubwigenge, ariko akaza kubwirwa ko ari umunyamahanga muri iyo Nama. Niko byanagenze kandi kuri Musenyeri Kanyamacumbi wa Diyoseze ya Goma.

Uko ubu butumwa bwatangwaga ku rwego rw’igihugu, byagiraga ingaruka ku Batutsi bakomeje kugenda bicwa, ubwicanyi bwarushijeho gufata indi ntera hagati ya 1990 na 1993.

Nyuma ya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu 1994, abayigizemo uruhare bahungiye muri Congo banagira uruhare mu kwica Abatutsi bari muri icyo gihugu.

Mu 1994, hashyizweho Komisiyo yihariye y’abadepite yari igamije kureba ingaruka impunzi z’Abahutu zagize ku baturage gakondo ba Congo n’inkomoko nyayo y’Abanyarwanda batuye Congo Zaïre y’icyo gihe.

Iyi Komisiyo yitiriwe Vangu Mambueni wari uyiyoboye, yanzuye ko Aba-Rwandaphones bose atari Abanye-Congo, ahubwo ko ari abanyamahanga bakwiriye kwirukanwa. Yewe n’Abanyamulenge bamaze imyaka irenga amagana ku butaka bwa Congo, babwiwe ko ari abanyamahanga bigize abenegihugu ku ngufu.

Muri Kanama 1995, Leta ya Zaïre yirukanye abaturage barenga ibihumbi 15 ivuga ko ari Abanyarwanda n’abasigaye ibateguza kuzinga utwangushye. Iri hohoterwa ryose, kongeraho ubwicanyi bakorewe kuva mu 1990, byatumye Aba-Rwandophone bagira uruhare mu kurema umutwe wa AFDL, warwanyije ubutegetsi bwa Mobutu kugera ubuhiritse.

Iyi ni imwe mu mpamvu zatumye havuka umutwe wa AFDL iyoborwa na Desire Kabila, ari nayo yaje kugira uruhare mu gukuraho ubutegetsi bwa Mobutu.

Kabila yageze ku butegetsi yitandukanya n'Aba-Rwandophones bamufashije kugera ku butegetsi, bituma bashinga umutwe umurwanya wa RCD-Goma

Amavu n’amavuko ya M23 n’impamvu irwana

Nyuma y’uko Laurent-Désiré Kabila agereye ku butegetsi, yatangiye kwikanga Aba-Rwandophone dore ko n’imbere mu gihugu yashinjwaga kuba igikoresho cyabo, bituma atangira kubagambanira ndetse no gukorana n’ingabo zahoze ari iza Ex-Far zagize uruhare muri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu 1994 kugira ngo zizamufashe kubahashya, mu gihe byari kuba ngombwa.

Muri rusange, Kabila yakusanyije abahoze mu ngabo za Habyarimana barenga ibihumbi 20, bafite umugambi wo gutera u Rwanda no gukomeza kubangamira Aba Rwandophone, ari na byo byarakaje u Rwanda, rutangiza intambara yiswe iya Congo ya Kabiri.

Ubugambanyi bwa Kabila bwatumye abari abasirikare ba AFDL bamugejeje ku butegetsi basubira mu Burasirazuba bwa Congo barema undi mutwe wiswe RCD-Goma yari iyobowe na Azalias Ruberwa, wahise ufata Umujyi wa Goma na Bukavu rugikubita.

Ibi byatumye Leta ya Kabila yemera kujya mu masezerano yagombaga gushyira iherezo ku bikorwa by’ihohoterwa rikorerwa Abavuga Ikinyarwanda mu Burasirazuba bwa Congo. Byari ku nshuro ya mbere Leta ya Congo igiye mu mishyikirano n’umutwe uharanira inyungu z’Aba-Rwandophones.

Aya masezerano ariko ntabwo yashyizwe mu bikorwa, ari na byo byatumye mu 2004 havuka undi mutwe uzwi nka CNDP uyobowe na Laurant Nkunda, wari ufite intego imwe na RCD-Goma yo kurengera Aba-Rwandophone bari bakomeje kwamburwa uburenganzira bwabo.

Leta ya Congo yongeye kwinjira mu masezerano na CNDP mu ku itariki ya 23 Werurwe 2009, ariko ibyaganiriweho ntibyashyirwa mu bikorwa kuko ihohoterwa rikorerwa Aba-Rwandophone ryakomeje kwiyongera.

Iby’aya masezerano ntibyashyizwe mu bikorwa, bituma mu 2012 havuka M23, nayo iza ivuga ko iharanira uburenganzira bw’abakoresha Ururimi rw’Ikinyarwanda mu Burasirazuba bwa Congo, no guharanira ko ibyasinywe mu 2009 byubahirizwa.

Mu mpera z’umwaka wa 2012, M23 yarwanye inkundura n’ingabo za Congo, ndetse Ku ya 20 Ugushyingo 2012, yari yamaze kwigarurira Umujyi wa Goma ufatwa nk’Umurwa Mukuru wa Kivu y’Amajyaruguru.

Hakomeje igitutu cy’amahanga hasabwa ko haba ibiganiro impande zombi zigashaka igisubizo giturutse ku mahoro. Ku rundi ruhande, ingabo za Congo niko zari ziri gushaka amaboko ziza kongera kwigarurira Umujyi wa Goma ku bufasha bw’ingabo za Loni gusa ibiganiro byarakomeje. Ibi biganiro byasojwe muri Gicurasi 2013 hemezwa ko M23 irambika intwaro hasi, abarwanyi bayo bagashyirwa mu ngabo za Congo abandi bagasubizwa mu buzima busanzwe, hanyuma M23 ikaba umutwe wa politiki.

Igice kimwe cya M23 nayo yasaga n’iyacitsemo ibice cyahungiye mu Rwanda, ikindi gihungira muri Uganda hategerejwe ko ibyo Leta ya Congo yemeye bishyirwa mu bikorwa.

Habaye inama zitandukanye zigamije gushyira mu bikorwa ibyemejwe mu masezerano ya Nairobi yo mu 2013 ariko biba iby’ubusa, Leta ya Congo ikabigendamo biguruntege.

M23 iherutse gutangaza ko yagerageje kenshi kumvikana na Leta ya Felix Tshisekedi ku gushyira mu bikorwa amasezerano ya Nairobi, biba iby’ubusa kuko Kinshasa yagaragaje ubushake buke bwa politiki.

Imirwano ya M23 yatangiye kumvikana mu 2021 ariko ikaza umurego mu 2022. Muri Mata uyu mwaka imitwe y’inyeshyamba irwanya Leta ya Congo yahuriye i Nairobi mu gushakira hamwe uburyo hagaruka umutekano mu Burasirazuba bwa Congo.

M23 yari yatumiwe ariko bivugwa ko itigeze yemererwa kwinjira mu biganiro, ari nabyo byatumye barya karungu bakiyemeza gukaza imirwano kugira ngo impamvu yabo yumvikane.

Kugeza ubu M23 irwana ni igice kiyobowe na Sultan Makenga cyahoze muri Uganda. Uyu mutwe uherutse kwigarurira ibice bimwe na bimwe byo muri Kivu ya Ruguru hafi y’Umujyi wa Goma birimo na Bunagana.

Leta ya Congo iherutse kuvuga ko M23 ari umutwe w’iterabwoba kandi ko itazongera kwemera ibiganiro na yo.

Umutwe wa M23 ufite amateka maremare afitanye isano n'ihohoterwa ryakorewe Aba-Rwandophone mu myaka myinshi ishize
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