IGIHE

Imikorere ya ’lobbyists’, amatsinda Rujugiro, Rusesabagina na Tshisekedi bayobotse mu kwibasira u Rwanda

0 1-08-2022 - saa 07:46, Rabbi Malo Umucunguzi

Mu mwaka wa 2018, uwari Minisitiri w’Ibidukikije mu Bufaransa, Nicolas Hulot, yeguye kuri uyu mwanya kubera icyo yise ’lobbies’ (lobbyists) - abantu bafite izindi ngufu kandi b’imbere cyane mu butegetsi, bavuga rikumvikana.

Icyo gihe yeruye ko kuba minisitiri bidahagije ngo ube umunyembaraga, kugeza ubwo yibajije kuri mikoro ati "ni nde ufite ubutegetsi? Ni nde uyobora?”

Ibikorwa byo kwigererayo cyangwa se "lobbying" bifite ijambo mu miyoborere y’Isi ya none. Ni byo biikomeje gutuma imbunda bwite z’abaturage zikomeje gukora akantu muri Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika, ariko kubigenzura byarananiranye kubera abanyamaboko bazicuruza.

Ni nako bigenda iyo bigeze ku itabi, ku buryo aho kurica havuka ikindi gitekerezo cyo kwandikaho ngo "kunywa itabi birica."

Ni umurimo wubahwa cyane kuko usunika inyungu uruhande runaka rufite nko mu bucuruzi, kugeza zumviswe ndetse zigahabwa agaciro n’abafata ibyemezo.

Ku rundi ruhande, lobbying inengwa ko ari amayira yaharuriwe abafite amikoro ahambaye, ngo babashe kwigerera mu nda y’ingoma, maze ijambo ryabo ryumvikane, babone ibyo bifuza ku bategetsi.

Nko mu Bufaransa, kugeza mu 2018 hari hamaze kwiyandikisha abantu 1611 bahagarariye inyungu zitandukanye, mu kigo Haute Autorité pour la Transparence de la vie publique.

Naho muri Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika, lobbying ni uruganda rukomeye ku buryo mu 2020 rwabarirwaga muri miliyari 3,5$, rukabarizwamo abantu barenga ibihumbi 12 n’ibigo birenga amagana.

Ibi bigo bikora bite

Marcie McSwane, ni umwe mu ba lobbyists muri The McSwane Group. Yatangiye uyu murimo mu 2019.

Mbere yaho yakoranaga bya hafi na Ray McGrath wari umwe mu bagize Inteko Ishinga Amategeko ya Amerika.

Avuga ko abantu bakora muri lobbying bagomba kuba ari abantu bafitiwe icyizere,

Robert Reich, umwarimu mu bijyanye na politiki muri Kaminuza ya California Berkeley, avuga ko kubera imbaraga nyinshi no kwigerera mu bafata ibyemezo, muri Amerika usanga ibigo binini ari byo bibona inyoroshyo mu misoro, ndetse bikabona nkunganire zigenda zishyirwaho, aho guhabwa ibigo bito.

Jimmy William, ni umwe mu bahoze ari lobbyists. Hagati ya 2000 na 2002 yari umujyanama mu bijyanye na politiki y’ubukungu wa Senateri Dick Durbin wari uhagarariye Leta ya Illinois.

Muri icyo gihe avuga ko yifashishaga amakuru yahabwaga na lobbyists.

Yakomeje ati “Gusa naje kumenya ko aba lobbyists bakubwira gusa ibintu bashaka ko umenya niba ari ko nabivuga."

Muri make ngo usanga abagize Inteko Ishinga Amategeko amakuru bahabwa ava ahantu hamwe, kandi bakayakoresha mu byemezo biri mu nyungu z’abayatanze.

Aba ba lobbyists ngo usanga bahorana amafaranga n’akarimi karyoshye, ubundi bagahora basubiramo imvugo zijyanye n’intego bashaka kumvikanisha, kugeza biciyemo.

Mu kwiyegereza aba banyapolitiki kandi, ngo usanga binyura mu gutera inkunga ibikorwa by’amatora.

William yakomeje ati “Uko ukoresha amafaranga menshi ku bagize Inteko Ishinga Amategeko ni ko urushaho kugirana inama nabo. Ntabwo ari ugushaka kuvuga aba-démocrates cyangwa aba-républicains , ni ko kuri kw’amafaranga na politiki.”

Imibare yerekana ko mu 2019, nibura miliyari 3,5$ zakoreshejwe mu bikorwa bya lobbying, ni ukuvuga hafi inshuro ebyiri z’ingengo y’imari ya Sena n’umutwe w’abadepite, kuko byari miliyari 2,16$.

Amategeko yagiye akazwa, ku buryo bene ibi bigo bigenzurwa ku buryo bwo gutanga no kwakira izo mpano cyangwa za ruswa.

Nyamara kugeza ubu ngo nta rwego ruhari rugenzura lobbying, ndetse gutangaza amakuru yose ku bikorwa by’ibi bigo ni ku bushake, ku buryo n’abahaniwe amakosa muri uwo murimo ari mbarwa.

Williams avuga ko kuba ibi bigo bikora lobbying bikoresha amafaranga menshi kuri aba bayobozi batorwa, bituma bisanga cyane ku muyobozi bigeze gushyigikira atorwa.

Inyigo yakozwe n’ikigo The Sunlight Foundation, yerekanye ko “buri dolari ryose ritanzwe, ikigo kigarukirwa na 760$ ava muri Guverinoma.”

Abasesenguzi bagahuriza ku kuvuga ko kugira ngo aba ba lobbyists gahunda zabo zicemo, bigomba gushingira ku buryo bazi amategeko n’uko ibintu bikorwa, bikuzuzwa n’uko baziraye n’abantu benshi muri Capital Hill, Inteko ya Amerika.

Ibyo bigahuzwa n’uko ubushakashatsi bwakozwe bwemeje ko nibura 60 ku ijana by’abagize Inteko Ishinga Amategeko batsinzwe amatora cyangwa bagiye mu kiruhuko mu 2019, bahise babona imirimo muri lobbying.

Bene abo bantu ngo baranizerwa cyane kuko baba bashobora kwisanga ku muntu uwo ari we wese.

Ni igikorwa ariko kimaze kugaragazwa nk’igishobora kuba cyiza mu bucuruzi, kikaba kibi kuri demokarasi, kuko abafite ubushobozi binjiririra abafite imbaraga za politiki, ibyemezo bashaka bigafatwa mu nyungu zabo.

Hari rumwe mu ngero za hafi. Nyuma y’imyaka 20 umuti wa Orphacol ukoreshwa mu Bufaransa mu kuvura umwijima, mu 2009, Laboratoires CTRS yashatse kuwucuruza mu Burayi yibwira ko bizoroha, ariko bifata imyaka ine y’impaka nyinshi.

Nyamara Ikigo gishinzwe imiti mu Burayi cyari cyarawukomoreye, ariko Komisiyo y’u Burayi ikereza icyo cyemezo. Icyemezo cyo kuwushyira ku isoko cyabonetse iminsi 1000 nyuma y’icyemezo cy’u Burayi gishinzwe imiti.

Ni urugendo rwifashishijwemo ‘lobbyist’ Daniel Gueguen, ubimazemo imyaka 30.

Yagize ati “Umu lobbyist ni umuntu ushinzwe guherekeza umukiliya, ikigo cyangwa uruganda, kugira ngo kibashe kwemerwa mu mategeko y’u Burayi, bijyanye n’inyungu z’abantu ahagarariye. Hashobora kubamo kumvisha komisiyo ibitekerezo runaka, kumvisha komisiyo guhindura igikorwa runaka binyuze mu Nteko Ishinga Amategeko cyangwa ahandi.”

Daniel Gueguen avuga ko uyu ari umurimo usaba kuba uziranye n’abantu benshi ku buryo bakwizera, n’ibyo uvuga bikaba byumvikana.

Yakomeje ati “Ni umurimo ariko utakirwa neza rimwe na rimwe ku rwego rw’igihugu nko mu Bufaransa, mu Bubiligi, aho usanga babifata nko kugena uko abandi bagomba gutekereza, ruswa n’ibindi, mu gihe ari imikorere yemewe muri demokarasi.”

Muri make, lobbyists byageze aho bafatwa nk’agatsiko k’abantu bakomeye kandi bigerera ahantu hose, baharanira inyungu z’ababahaye akaryo kandi bakazigeraho mu buryo bumwe cyangwa ubundi.

Carine Karimba, umukobwa wa Rusesabagina yifashishije aba lobbyists mu gusaba ko se afungurwa

U Rwanda n’ingaruka za ba lobbyists

Iminsi ikomeje kwihirika ari nako ibintu bidogera muri Repubulika Iharanira Demokarasi ya Congo, kubera ibikorwa by’imitwe yitwaje intwaro n’imyigaragambyo y’abaturage.

Ubu noneho bakomeje kwamagana Ingabo z’Umuryango w’Abibumbye (MONUSCO), zoherejwe muri icyo gihugu zigomba kubarindira umutekano.

Ibyo byose bigaragaza urusobe rw’ibibazo byugarije ubutegetsi bwa RDC, haba ku bwa Tshisekedi uriho ubu ndetse n’abamubanjirije.

Ku rundi ruhande, RDC yakomeje gushaka uwo yakwegekaho ibibazo byayo, ku mwanya wa mbere hakaza u Rwanda.

Mu makuru agenda ajya hanze, agaragaza uburyo uiki gihugu cyakomeje gushakisha amajwi yashyigikira imvugo zacyo hirya no hino, kugeza no ku badepite mu nteko ishinga amategeko ya Leta zunze ubumwe za Amerika.

Kugira ngo urwo rugendo rworohe, mu buryo bumaze kumenyerwa, iki gihugu cyanyuze ku bigo bikomeye mu icengezamatwara, ndetse bibasha kwigerera imbere mu biro by’abanyapolitiki bakomeye muri Amerika.

Kimwe mu bigo RDC yahise itangira kwifashisha guhera muri Werurwe, ni Ballard Partners ndetse imibare igaragaza ko bacyishyura 75000$ ku kwezi, hamwe na Scribe Strategies and Advisors cyishyurwa 50000$ ku kwezi.

Tshisekedi yayobotse aba lobbyists kugira ngo bamufashe kumvisha amahanga ko u Rwanda rumubangamiye

Mu gihe RDC ikomeje kwishyura ibyo bigo buri kwezi, Ballard Partners iheruka kwandikira email umwe mu bayobozi ba hafi b’umusenateri ukuriye Komisiyo y’ububanyi n’amahanga muri Sena, Robert Menendez, imusaba ubufasha mu guhangana n’u Rwanda.

Ku wa 14 Kamena, John O’Hanlon yaje kwandikira Heather Flynn ati “Nta kuntu mwaba mutazi ko ejo hashize, abarwanyi ba M23 bigaruriye Umujyi wa Bunagana, uri ku mupaka wa RDC. Abayobozi ba RDC bahamya neza ko u Rwanda rwafashije aba barwanyi ba M23 muri icyo gikorwa. Abana barishwe, n’ibindi. Birarenze.”

Iki kigo kiyoborwa n’abantu bo mu ishyaka ry’aba-républicains , ni kimwe mu bifite ijambo muri politiki ya Amerika ku rwego mpuzamahanga.

Mu butumwa bwe, O’Hanlon akomeza avuga ko "ku busabe bwa Guverinoma ya RDC", iki kigo gishaka kureba niba hari uburyo Komisiyo y’ububanyi n’amahaga yakohereza ibaruwa mu bunyamabanga bwa Leta isaba ko hafungurwa iperereza ku Rwanda.

Akomeza ati “Gusohora amatangazo byashoboka? Hari ubundi buryo mubibonamo?”

Ibindi u Rwanda rwahanganye nabyo

Mu mwaka wa 2017, nibwo byagiye ahabona ko Umuherwe w’Umunyarwanda, Tribert Ayabatwa Rujugiro, abinyujije kuri Dr David Himbara utavuga rumwe n’ubutegetsi bw’u Rwanda, yishyuye ibihumbi byinshi by’amadolari ikigo gikora ubuvugizi mu guhuza inzego zitandukanye muri Amerika, Podesta Group. Ni ikigo gikorera i Washington, D.C.

Icyo kigo cyaje guhuza Himbara na bagenzi be bahunze igihugu batavuga rumwe n’ubutegetsi, n’umwe mu bagize Inteko Ishinga Amategeko ya Amerika, Christopher Smith, wari ukuriye agashami ka Komisiyo y’Ububanyi n’Amahanga, kibanda kuri Afurika yo munsi y’Ubutayu bwa Sahara.

Imibare yashyizwe ahagaragara nk’uko bisabwa n’itegeko rya Amerika, yerekana ko Himbara yatangiye gukorana na Podesta Group muri Nzeri 2014, muri uwo mwaka yishyura $120 000.

Mu 2015 yishyuye 140 000$, mu 2016 yishyura 120 000$, mu 2017 ho kugeza kugeza kuwa 20 Nyakanga yari amaze gutanga 60 000$, yose hamwe akangana na 440 000$, ni ukuvuga arenga miliyoni 372 Frw.

Mu mihuro yabaye, nk’uwo ku wa 20 Gicurasi 2015, Himbara yashinje leta y’u Rwanda gushyigikira iterabwoba, avuga ko Amerika nk’igihugu gifite amategeko arwanya ko ibihugu bishyigikira bene ibyo bikorwa “komisiyo yareba uko ayo mategeko yakoreshwa kuri leta y’u Rwanda.”

Mu gihe ibyo ari ibyo hambere, mu minsi ishize umukobwa wa Paul Rusesabagina, Carine Kanimba, yari imbere y’abagize inteko ishinga amategeko asobanura uburyo ngo u Rwanda rumuneka, rwifashishije ikoranabuhanga rya Pegasus.

Umwe mu bagize inteko ya Amerika Adam Schiff ari kumwe n'umu lobbyist ukomeye witwa Heather Podesta (hagati)

Ni ibikorwa yafashijwemo n’aba lobbyists, bakomeje kujya inyuma ya Rusesabagina guhera na mbere ubwo yatangiraga gukorwaho iperereza, bakajya bagenda bamwamamaza nk’intwari, idakwiye gukurikiranwa mu Rwanda.

Na nyuma yo gufatwa akekwaho ibyaha by’iterabwoba, bakomeje kuvuga ko yashimuswe, bagakora imbwirwaruhame banasaba ko u Rwanda rwafatirwa ibihano, nubwo bifata ubusa.

Bamwe mu bakomeje kumukingira ikibaba ni abafote aho bahuriye na Hotel Rwanda Paul Rusesabagina Foundation, bisanga muri White House, barimo nka Sean Tenner, Bob Walsh, Kitty Kurth, Brian Endless n’abandi.

Yakomeje kuvuganirwa kandi n’imiryango nka Lantos Foundation for Human Rights and Justice.

Byageze aho kubera kwegerwa na bene aba bantu, umuyobozi wa Komisiyo y’ububanyi n’amahaga, Bob Menendez yandika ibaruwa asaba igihugu cye gukura amaboko ku Rwanda no guhagarika ubufasha bwose cyarugeneraga ngo kuko ‘abayobozi barwo bafite ibyaha byinshi bakoze bishimangirwa n’itabwa muri yombi rinyuranyije n’amategeko rya Paul Rusesabagina’.

Banasabye u Rwanda kurekura Rusesabagina, bavuga ko afunzwe binyuranyije n’amategeko.

Lobbyists mu koreka imbaga

Ubushakashatsi bwemeza ko hamwe mu hantu hagaragara cyane ari mu kwandika imishinga y’amategeko, aho usanga bita cyane ku ngingo zitabangamira inyungu bahawe amafaranga ngo baharanire.

Ni abantu kandi usanga bakora ubushakashatsi ndetse bakabukwirakwiza, bagamije ko ko abantu bafata ibyemezo bagendera mu murongo bahora batanga.

Kenshi ngo ubwo bushakashatsi usanga hari ingingo butitayeho, ariko izo bashak a gushyiramo imbaraga bakazitsindagira cyane.

Aba bantu ngo usanga barubatse umubano uhambaye n’abanyapolitiki, bagategura imigoroba yo gusangira, bagamije ko inyungu zabo zumvikana aho ibyemezo bifatirwa.

Ni abantu ngo uzasanga biyegereza cyane abagize inteko zishinga amategeko kuko ari bo bacura amategeko, abaminisitiri nk’abafata ibyemezo bikomeye, kugeza no ku bunganira abashingamategeko.

Fabrice Alexandre uyobora ikigo Communication & Institutions, aheruka kubwira Le Monde ko Lobby ari uburyo bwo guhagararira inyungu runaka, kandi bigakorwa mu buryo bwemewe n’amategeko.

Ku bwe ngo ntabwo yumva demokarasi ishobora kubaho, mu gihe inyungu runaka zidaharaniwe kandi zikarengerwa.

Ibihugu byinshi byagiye bigerageza kugenzura ijambo ibi bigo bifite, ariko biragoye.

Nk’u Bufaransa bwashyizeho amategeko abasaba gukorera mu mucyo, ku buryo buri wese aba agomba kugaragaza imyirondoro ye, kugaragaza neza inyungu baharanira kandi ntibakoreshe ubuhobozi bwabonetse binyuze mu buriganya. Umuntu utimenyekanishije ashobora gufungwa umwaka, cyangwa agacibwa amande y’amayero 15.000.

Robert Menendez ni umwe mu bagize Inteko Ishinga Amategeko ya Amerika wiyegerejwe n’aba lobbyst kugira ngo afashe umuryango wa Rusesabagina
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