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Umunsi mukuru w’Umuganura mu muco no mu mateka y’u Rwanda

0 2-08-2019 - saa 11:46, Nsanzabera Jean de Dieu

Kuva kera mu muco no mu mateka y’u Rwanda, Umuganura wari umunsi mukuru ukomeye kandi wubahwaga, ugahabwa agaciro gakomeye i bwami no mu muryango nyarwanda muri rusange, bitewe n’agaciro wabaga ufite muri rubanda. Wari umunsi usobetse imihango n’imigenzo ikubiyemo byinshi bifite icyo bivuze gikomeye mu buzima bw’igihugu.

Nk’uko tubikesha igitabo “Umuco mu Buvanganzo’’ n’icyitwa “Intwari z’imbanza, zubatse u Rwanda rugahamya igitinyiro’’ byombi bya Nsanzabera Jean de Dieu, inzobere mu muco, amateka n’ubuvanganzo, tugiye kubatekerereza amateka y’umunsi mukuru w’umuganura n’ibyo wasobanuraga mu muco n’amateka y’u Rwanda.

Umuganura watangiye kwizihizwa mu Rwanda ku Ngoma ya Gihanga Ngomijana mu kinyejana cumi na kimwe, uza kongera guhabwa imbaraga na Ruganzu II Ndoli (1510-1543) ubwo yabohoraga u Rwanda nyuma y’imyaka irenga 11 ruri mu maboko y’abanyamahanga (Abanyoro, Abanyabyinshi n’Abanyabungo).

Umuganura wabaye imwe mu nzira z’ubwiru, kenshi na kenshi dufata nk’itegeko nshinga ryo mu Rwanda rwo hambere. Ni umwe mu byafatirwagaho ibitaramo nyarwanda, kuko nawo wari ufite umwanya mu bitaramo bitanu byari bikomeye mu Rwanda rwo ha mbere.

Mu munsi mukuru w’umuganura, ibwami hazaga imyaka y’amoko menshi yabaga yeze muri ibyo bihe, ariko mu kuwutegura no kuwizihiza, hakifashishwa imbuto nkuru y’amasaka, ari nayo bengagamo amarwa n’inturire, ubundi bagasangira bishimira ibyiza byagezweho.

Mbere y’uko habaho umuganura nyirizina wo muri Kamena kugeza muri Nzeri, hari undi munsi Mukuru wabaga muri Gashyantare witwaga “Umurorano’’ benshi bakunze kwita “Umuganura w’uburo’’. Uwo munsi mukuru icyo wasobanura nk’uko izina ryawo riri, wavugaga, “Gusogongera umuganura’’ ari nabwo abashinzwe umuganura batangiraga kuwuhinga.

Mu gukora uwo muhango w’Umurorano uvuze gusogongera umuganura uzaba muri Kamena kugeza muri Nzeri, kenshi na kenshi bifashishaga imbuto nkuru ya Gihanga, ariyo y’uburo, dore ko aho buhingwa muri ibyo bihe bwabaga bweze, kandi nabwo bugomba guhabwa ikuzo nka bumwe mu mbuto za mbere z’ibanze z’Abanyarwanda (uburo, inzuzi, isogi, ibikoro n’amasaka), zahanganywe n’u Rwanda.

Ku rwego rw’Igihugu, Umuganura wayoborwaga n’Umwami afashijwe n’abanyamihango b’umuganura bakomoka kuri Rutsobe rwa Gihanga naho ku rwego rw’umuryango, umukuru w’umuryango n’abagize uwo muryango we nabo barahuraga bakizihiza umuganura kugera hasi ku miryango mito.

Ibirori by’Umuganura mu gihe cya kera byizihizwaga ku mwero w’amasaka, Umunsi Mukuru w’umuganura watangiraga muri Kamena, ugasoza muri Nzeri. Umunsi Mukuru waheraga ibwami, ukabona gusesekara muri rubanda.

Baganuzaga Umwami amata, amasaka n’izindi mbuto nkuru ari zo uburo, inzuzi n’isogi ariko bakongeraho n’ibindi byose byabaga byeze muri icyo gihe.

Umwami yafataga umwuko agatangiza umuhango wo kuvugira umutsima rubanda baje kuganuza, akawuvuga apfukamye yerekana icyubahiro aha abo ayobora ndetse n’Igihugu. Nyuma y’umuhango wo kuganura hakurikiragaho ibirori by’Umuganura byasozwaga n’igitaramo cy’imihigo. Muri ibyo birori, Umwami yamurikirwaga umusaruro unyuranye w’Abanyarwanda bavuye impande zose z’Igihugu, hakaba amarushanwa y’ indashyikirwa.

Kuri uwo munsi kandi, imiryango nayo yarateranaga maze umutware w’umuryango akayobora imihango n’ibirori byayikurikiraga.

Umuganura rero ni kimwe mu byatumye u Rwanda ruba Igihugu gikomeye kitavogerwa kuko watumye Abanyarwanda bunga ubumwe. Umuganura wasobanuraga byinshi mu buzima bw’igihugu.

Bimwe muri byo nibyo dusanga mu mateka n’umuco by’Abanyarwanda, byatumaga uwo munsi mukuru ubaho. Iby’ingenzi byagendeweho kugira ngo hagenwe umunsi mukuru w’umuganura, bigatuma ushyirwa mu itegeko nshinga ryo mu Rwanda rwo ha mbere, ni ibi bikurikira:

• Umuganura cyari igikoresho cy’ibarabihe mu mateka y’u Rwanda, kuko iyo babaraga imyaka y’ubukure y’umunyarwanda, bagiraga bati “kanaka yariye imiganura iyi n’iyi.”

• Umunsi w’umuganura wizihizwaga kubera impamvu zo gushimira Imana y’i Rwanda yabahaye amagara mazima, imyaka ikaba yihiritse

• Umuganura wari umunsi wo kwishimira uburumbuke bw’imyaka, abantu n’amatungo Abanyarwanda babaga barungutse mu mwaka wose,

• Umuganura niwo wari umunsi w’ubunani mu bihe byo ha mbere, kuko umwaka w’Abanyarwanda watangiraga ku wa 15 Nzeri ukarangira n’ubundi ku wa 15 Nzeri w’umwaka ukurikiyeho,

• Umuganura rwari urubuga Abanyarwanda bahuriragamo bategura igenamigambi ry’umwaka ukurikiyeho, cyane cyane igihembwe cya mbere cy’ihinga aricyo cy’Umuhindo, gitangirana na Nzeri kigasozanya n’Ukuboza.

Mu ihururu ry’umwaduko w’Abakoroni, Umunsi mukuru w’umuganura uri mu byashegeshwe n’Abakoroni b’Ababirigi.

Mu mavugurura yakozwe yo kwangiza umuco w’Abanyarwanda, harimo n’umuganura. Mu wa 1925 Adiminisitarateri wa Nyanza yafashe icyemezo cyo "Guca" Gashamura ka Rukangirashyamba umutware w’Abiru (Umwiru w’ijambo) amucira i Gitega (Burundi).

Bamuzizaga ko yari afite uruhare mu mitegekere no mu mibanire y’ibwami n’Abazungu. Muri ibyo bihe nibwo banakuyeho umuganura n’abahinzi bawo.

Musenyeri Léon Paul Classe na we uwo mugambi wo kwigizayo Gashamura yari awurimo. Baciye umuganura bitwaje ko ariwo Abanyarwanda bahuriramo bagasangira imihango yabo itsindira igihugu.

Rwampungu, umuhungu wa Gashamura, bahise bamushyira mu ishuri riyoborwa n’Umubiligi, bityo "Ubwiru" burazima kuko bari babuciye umutwe. Umuganura nka kimwe mu mihango y’ubwiru yabashaga kugira byinshi isobanura ubwami n’abaturage basangiye, uzima utyo.

Kwizihiza umuganura muri iki gihe byarenze imbibi zo kwita ku musaruro w’ubuhinzi n’ubworozi gusa, ahubwo bigera no mu zindi nzego zireba ubuzima n’iterambere by’Abanyarwanda.

Kwizihiza Umuganura ni ugusubira ku isoko y’umuco wacu tukavomamo bimwe bishobora kudufasha gukemura ibibazo duhura na byo uko Igihugu kigenda gitera imbere. Umuganura ni isoko y’ubuhuza n’umuco wo kwigira kw’Abanyarwanda.

Umuganura usobanuye byinshi mu mateka n'umuco w'Abanyarwanda
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