Ubumwe, umutekano n’imibereho myiza by’Abanyarwanda ni inkingi y’ibikorwa byose bya politiki u Rwanda rushingiyeho. Kuva ubutegetsi buriho ubu bwabaho, icyo aricyo cyose cyaza gishaka kubihungabanya kibura aho kimenera.

Imbaraga z’Abanyarwanda mu kubaka igihugu cyabo mu mateka yabo yo kumenya ibyiza kuko bamenye ibibi biruta ibindi nk’uko Perezida Kagame Paul abikomozaho kenshi.

Ni imbaraga ziterwa no kumenya akamaro k’umutekano kuko umutekano muke ushoboka bawuzi. Umunyarwanda ntiwamwigisha kuruha cyangwa kubabara kuko uwo yagize ntawe yifuza kuwuhaho umurage. Umunyarwanda azi icyiza cy’ubumwe kuko ikibi cy’amacakubiri nta wukimurusha.

Muri iki gihe cy’amatora, hari abantu n’ibinyamakuru bishishikariye guha isura mbi u Rwanda. Ngo n’ubwo ubona Abanyarwanda bishimye, ngo bishwe n’ubwoba— wagereranya no kuvuga ko bariho batariho.

Muri abo bakwiza ko Umunyarwanda ariho atariho, nta n’umwe uvuga igitinyisha Abanyarwanda. Urebye, abavuga ko Abanyarwanda bafite ubwoba, nibo babufite kubera ibyo u Rwanda rwagezeho kandi nabo bemera.

Kugirana imishyikirano n’abatabikwiye

Mu mwaka wa 2013, Jakaya Kikwete wari Perezida wa Tanzania, yagiriye inama Perezida Paul Kagame ko u Rwanda rukwiye kugira imishyikirano n’umutwe wa FDLR. Igisubizo cyabaye “Risubize aho urikuye” itavanze na “Tuzabitekerezaho.” FDLR ni umutwe, ugendera ku ngengabitekerezo ya Jenoside kuko ari na yo nkomoko yawo.

Mu mahame y’Umuryango FPR-Inkotanyi, icyo wemera ko ari cyiza uragikora.Mu ntekerezo yawo ya ‘Ukuri guca mu ziko ntigushya.’ N’icyo wemera ko ari kibi ntugikora, ahubwo urakirwanya. Ibyo nibyo Perezida Kikwete yari yaribagiwe. Ndavuga ko ari ukubyibagirwa, atari ukutabimenya, kuko hari amateka Inkotanyi zakoreye muri Tanzania, mu gihe cy’imishyikirano y’amahoro ya Arusha, nubwo yishwe n’ubutegetsi bwa Habyarimana.

Imwe mu nyandiko zabanzirije iyi yakomoje ku mateka y’ubufatanye bwa FPR n’indi mitwe ya politiki. Ni ubufatanye bwakomotse ku kugira byinshi bahuriraho.Muri iyo nyandiko nibukije uburyo MRND yagendaga itsindwa muri politiki na diplomasi ikazabimenya itinze. Icyatumaga itinda kubyumva, ahaninini byaterwaga no kuzongwa na politiki z’urwango n’amacakubiri bitatumaga ishobora kwita ku bifitiye Umunyarwanda akamaro.

Urugero, ni uko nta mushinga bari bafite w’icyo guverinoma y’inzibacyuho yaguye igomba gukora nk’inshingano zihariye zatuma u Rwanda ruba rushya nyuma y’intambara. Gahunda yabo yari iyo kwiha ubutegetsi bushingiye “ku bwinshi” bibeshyaga ko bafite. Bakanategura amatora ya huti huti ku buryo bari baranateguye ingengabihe y’amatora yagombaga kuba yarangiye ku wa 16 Kamena 1993, kurahira bigakorwa kuri 24 Kamena 1993.

Ngarutse ku by’inshingano za Leta y’inzibacyuho yaguye, hari ibitekerezo FPR-Inkotanyi zatanze, amashyaka afitanye ubufatanye na byo arabyemera. Ibyo ni:
(1) Inshingano za Leta y’Inzibacyuho yaguye;
(2) Uburyo bwo gufata ibyemezo muri guverinoma hakoreshejwe ubwumvikane busesuye;

(3) Amahame imitwe ya politiki igomba gukurikiza ndetse ikayasinyira mbere y’uko yemererwa kujya muri iyo nzibacyuho.

Uko kwanga guha agaciro abagikomeye ku ngengabitekerezo isenya nka FDLR; FPR n’amashyaka yemeye gufatanya na yo bashyize mu masezerano yo gusaranganya ubutegetsi no gushyiraho guverinoma y’inzibacyuho yaguye yateguwe mu byiciro bibiri: ayasinyiwe Arusha ku wa 30 Ukwakira 1992 n’ayasinywe kuwa 9 Mutarama 1993 hagati ya Leta y’u Rwanda na FPR-Inkotanyi.

Mu nshingano iyo leta yahawe zirimo izi zikurikira:

- Mu rwego rw’umutekano leta yasabwe gushimangira amahoro hakorwa ibishoboka byose mu kurandura impamvu zateye intambara ahanini zikomoka ku kutubaha ubumwe bw’Abanyarwanda, uburenganzira bwa muntu na demokarasi; no gufata ingamba zihamye mu gushimangira umutekano w’abantu n’ibyabo. (Art. 23 (B) (1&3)
- Kugarura ubumwe mu gihugu leta yasabwe kubigira igikorwa cyihutirwa, cyane cyane gushyiraho ingamba zihamye zo kurandura ivangura n’ihezwa bibaho; gushyiraho uburyo bw’amategeko

- Guteza imbere ubumwe no kurwanya ivangura bwoko; no gutanga amahirwe angana mu gutanga imirimo n’amashuri hashingiwe ku bushobozi. (Art. 23 (C)
Bisabwe na FPR-Inkotanyi kandi bikemerwa, mu masezerano hemejwe amahame ngengamyitwarire umunani (8) muri politiki agomba gukurikizwa n’imitwe yose ya politiki ifite uruhare mu nzego z’inzibacyuho. (Art. 80)

Amwe muri ayo yari:

• Gushyigikira ubumwe n’ubwiyunge by’Abanyarwanda;
• Kwirinda ibikorwa ibyo ari byo byose bw’urugomo n’imvururu no gushishikariza abantu kujya mu mvururu haba mu nyandiko mu magambo n’ubundi buro bwose bw’itumanaho;
• Kurwanya, kwanga no kwiyemeza kurwanya ingengabitekerezo ya politiki cyangwa igikorwa icyo aricyo cyose kigamije gushyigikira ivangura cyane cyane irishingiye ku bwoko, akarere, igitsina cyangwa idini no;
• Kwiyemeza gushimangira ubutegetsi bwa politiki bukorera inyungu za buri Munyarwanda nta vangurabwoko.

Umutwe wa politiki utemeye gukurikiza ayo mahame wagombaga gufatirwa ibihano uhereye ku guhezwa mu nzego za leta y’inzibacyuho. (Art. 82) Icyo nicyo cyatumye FPR yanga ko CDR ishyirwa mu Nteko Ishinga Amategeko yaguye kubera imyitwarire yayo.

Ari abanyamadini, amashyaka na Loni bashatse kubihatira FPR ngo yemere gukorana na CDR birananirana kugeza ubwo abatashakaga amasezerano (MRND/CDR) bahitiyemo inzira ya Jenoside. FPR ifata icyemezo cyo kubarwanya, irabatsinda.
Ibyo Perezida Kikwete yasabaga cyangwa yifuzaga ngo u Rwanda rwemere CDR yahindutse RDR nyuma ikitwa FDLR, yagombye kwibuka ayo mateka. Akibuka ko nta muntu cyangwa igihugu gishyira mu gaciro cyigeze cyumva ko FPR ikabya yanga gutegekana na CDR.

Perezida Kikwete yagombaga kuba azi ko umutwe washyizweho n’abajenosideri, RDR, washatse kenshi gushyikirana na Leta iyobowe na FPR-Inkotanyi.

Perezida Mobutu Sese Seko w’iyahoze ari Zaire(ubu ni Repubulika Iharanira Demokarasi ya Congo)yashatse ko ikibazo cyo gushyikirana na RDR kijya kuri gahunda y’inama yo kwiga ku ntambara zo mu gace ka Afurika y’Ibiyaga Bigari, yabereye i Tunis muri Tunisia, muri Werurwe 1996. Yari inama iyobowe na Jimmy Carter wahoze ayobora Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika, yari yitabiriwe n’abaperezida Mobutu Sese Seko, (Zaire), Zine Lel Abedine Ben Ali (Tunisia), Yoweri Museveni (Uganda), Pasteur Bizimungu (Rwanda) na Sylvestre Ntibantunganya (Burundi) Harimo kandi n’abahoze ari aba perezida Julius Nyerere (Tanzania) na Amadou Touré (Mali).

Icyo gitekerezo cya Mobutu cyari cyanashyigiwe na ba Perezida Museveni na Ntibantunganya, mu gihe cyo gushaka kubijyaho impaka, Mwalimu Julius Nyerere yabujije Perezida Bizimungu kugira icyo abivugaho mbere ye.

Afashe ijambo, Nyerere yabwiye abari muri iyo nama ko ari amahano gusaba u Rwanda gushyikirana n’abasize bahekuye igihugu cyabo, yasobanuye ko icyo isi yakora ari ukurwanya RDR atari ugushyikirana nayo.

Nyerere yashimangiye ko nubwo benshi muri iyo nama babyemeza, we ku giti cye yahaguruka agahagarara, agashaka ahirengeye ku isi akabyamagana. Perezida Bizimungu ntacyo yigeze avuga. Abari mu nama bumvise ukuri birangira bityo n’uwazanye igitekerezo akivaho. Nta wakwanga kuvugana na RDR ngo avugane na FDLR.

Abanze amahoro barazimye

Nta mahoro FPR yari kuba iharanira ikorana n’ibisa na CDR badashaka ubumwe bw’Abanyarwanda. Nicyo cyatumye no mu itangazo rya FPR-Inkotanyi ryo ku wa 17 Nyakanga 1994, amashyaka arimo MRND, CDR n’abo bari bafatanyije muri ARD baraciwe muri politiki. Icyaciwe si ikindi ni politiki yabo mbi y’ivanguramoko.

Na MDR yashatse kuguma mu murongo nk’uwo, mu mwaka wa 2003 yaraciwe. Hari amashyaka yaje kuvuka atangijwe n’abahoze bari muri MDR. Ayo mashyaka ni PPC na PSP. Ubu bari kumwe n’indi mitwe ya politiki mu bumwe buzira amakemwa.

Amasezerano ya Arusha yarakaje Habyarimana n’abamushyigikiye, nta kibi cyarimo uretse kumva ko yamugabanyirije ubutegetsi, akanarwanya ingengabitekerezo ya MRND/CDR n’izayo. Ku itariki ya 15 Ugushyingo 1992, Perezida Habyarimana yakoresheje mitingi mu Ruhengeri ashoza intambara ku mugaragaro avugira ahagaragara imikoranire ye n’Interahamwe:

“Birirwa bavuga ngo MRND ntishyigikiye imishyikirano. Yabyerekana ite kugira ngo yerekane ko ishyigikiye rwose imishyikirano? Njyewe mu izina rya MRND, mvuga ko MRND ishyigikiye imishyikirano. Nanjye ubwanjye ndayishyigikiye kugira ngo izatugeze...izatugeze ku mahoro koko, ariko amahoro si impapuro, amahoro ni ku mutima wawe. Amahoro azaza ari uko Abanyarwanda bumvise koko ko uwagiye kubavugira Arusha yabavugiye ibyo bashaka, ko atavugiye ishyaka iri n’iri, ko yavuze ahubwo ibyo bumvikanyeho muri Guverinoma. Nicyo tumusaba. Ntagende afindafinda ibintu ngo yazanye urupapuro ngo ubwo azanye amahoro. Amahoro se ni urupapuro? Turasaba abajya Arusha kugenda bahagarariye Abanyarwanda, turasaba abajya Arusha kugenda bavuga ibyo Guverinoma yumvikanyeho, kugenda bavuga ibyo abaminisitiri bumvikanyeho mu nama yabo.”

Habyarimana yashimangiye iby’amatora n’icyizere afitiye Interahamwe. Avuga ko biteguye gutangira mitingi zo kwiyamamaza mu matora n’uruhare rw’Interahamwe.

Yagize ati “…mitingi ntiziratangira,… igihe zizatangirira nzatuma ku Nterahamwe maze tumanuke koko. Niyo mpamvu nsaba Umunyamabanga Mukuru wacu, kumvikana n’abacuruzi kugira ngo dushake ibitambaro by’Interahamwe, kuko Interahamwe iyo ziri mu mwambaro wazo ziraberwa koko. …icyangombwa ni ugutsinda amatora kandi tuzayatsinda kuko muhagaze neza hirya no hino mu ma perefegitura.”

Habyarimana yaryohewe cyane n’amashyi,amafirimbi n’ingoma byamushimiraga ubwo buterahamwe bwe, asoza ijambo rye agira ati:
“Igihe rero nikigera, nzabatumaho mwese, nzabwira Interahamwe nti tujyane. Barambwiye ngo wowe n’ujya kwiyamamaza uzajyana abasirikare bawe ngo kugira ngo abe ari bo bakwamamaza; …Ariko nzi ko abazanyamamaza cyane ari Interahamwe kuko turi kumwe.”

Nyuma y’iminsi ibiri, ku ya 17 Ugushyingo 1992, Dr. Nsengiyarenye Dismas, wari Minisitiri w’Intebe yandikiye Perezida Habyarimana ibaruwa No 718/02.02 amugaragariza ko ibyo yatangarije mu Ruhengeri ari agahomamunwa. Ntacyo byatanze, ahubwo muri MRND bari bariyemeje kurwanya amahoro uko bashoboye.

Nyuma y’icyumweru kimwe, nibwo Dr. Mugesera Leon yunganiye Perezida Habyarimana avugana umujinya yiyama amashyaka afatanyije na FPR anavugira ahirengeye umugambi wa Jenoside. Ni disikuru rutwitsi yavugiye ku Kabaya avuga ko Abatutsi bazasubizwa Ethiopia banyujijwe muri Nyabarongo. Ibyo byose umujinya wasembuwe n’imishyikirano y’Amahoro ya Arusha.

Dr. Mugesera yatangiye avuga icya mbere abagezaho “gikomeye” ari “imigeri MDR na PL, na FPR, hamwe na rya shyaka ryitwa PSD na PDC ndetse, bitera … kuri perezida wa repubulika” ngo kandi wa Muvoma yabo. Imigeri igaterwa n’abarwanashyaka babo. Iyo migeli yavugaga ikaba yari amasezerano ya Arusha yabonagamo kuvogerwa kw’ishyaka rya MRND n’amashumi yayo arimo CDR.

Mugesera yari asanzwe avuga ibyo shebuja Habyarimana ateruye cyane ati:“Ikindi kintu gikomeye nagira ngo mbabwire kugira ngo tudakomeza kuvogerwa: mwumva bavuga ngo imishyikirano ya Arusha! Simbivugaho umwanya munini, kuko ngira ngo uhagarariye Umunyamabanga Mukuru wa Muvoma araza kubivuga ku buryo burambuye. Ariko icyo nababwira ni uko intumva mwumva ngo ziri Arusha, ntabwo zihagarariye u Rwanda... ibyo bajya kuvuga Arusha, mbabwije amanyakuri!

Intumwa z’u Rwanda zitwa iz’u Rwanda ziyobowe n’Inyenzi, zigenda zikajya kuvugana n’inyenzi! Nkuko babivuga mu ndirimbo mujya mwumva ngo"Ni Imana yavuye ku Mana", nabo ni Inyenzi yavuye ku nyenzi ivugira inyenzi! Ibyo bajya kuvuga Arusha ni ibyo ibyo byitso by’inyenzi biri ino byagiye i Buruseli, bajya gukorera Arusha ngo byitirirwe u Rwanda, nta na kimwe kitari icy’i Buruseli gikorerwa aho; n’ikivuye mu Rwanda, ntabwo ari ikiba kivuye muri guverinoma yacu: ni icy’i Buruseli bagenda bikoreye bakajyana Arusha! Ni inyenzi rero ivugana n’indi, ibyo bita imishyikirano ntitwanga gushyikirana ndagira ngo mbabwire ko atari iy’u Rwanda: ni Inyenzi zivugana n’Inyenzi! Mubimenye rwose! Kandi ntabwo tuzemera ibyo bintu bizava ahongaho.”

Ibyo Mugesera yavuze, bikanamukurikirana kugeza ubwo igihugu cya Canada kimugaruriye mu Rwanda ngo akurikiranwe n’ubutabera, ntibyari ibitekerezo bye ku giti cye, byari iby’ishyaka rye n’abandi bose bahuje ingengabitekerezo.

Ibyabaye i Buruseli yavugaga, ni imishikirano y’amashyaka yari agize FDC yahuye na FPR-Inkotanyi bakiga uburyo amahoro yagaruka mu gihugu. Ubwo bufatanye muri politiki bwababaje leta ya Habyarimana n’iy’Abafaransa.

Kwicwa kwa Ngurinzira Boniface byari byarateguwe. Mu bantu barumuciriye ni Prof. Runyinya Barabwiriza wari umujyanama wa Perezida Habyarimana. Mu nyandiko y’ibanga Runyinya yandikiye Habyarimana ku wa 24 Ukuboza 1992, yavuze ko ngo uyoboye intumwa za guverinoma ari icyitso cy’Inkotanyi.Ngo “Le chef de la délégation est complice.”

Byabaye ngombwa ko batangira gusenya ubwo bufatanye, icyo bahereyeho ni ugushinga ihuriro ryiswe Forum-Paix et Democratie yarimo Emmanuel Gapyisi na Dr. Joseph Karinganire (MDR), Stanislas Mbonampeka (PL) n’abandi bo muribo muri MRND.

Hakurikiyeho Minisitiri w’Abafaransa w’Ubutwererane, Marcel Debarge, waje mu Rwanda muri Gashyantare 1993 gushishikariza amashyaka yose kwishyira hamwe akarwanya Inkotanyi. Ari nabwo bumwe bashakaga kugirango banoze umugambi wa Jenoside. Iyo nama cyangwa amabwiriza aturutse i Paris, yabaye intandaro yo kuvuka kwa HUTU-PAWA mu mashyaka ya MDR, PL na PSD.Ibyo Karamira Froduald yatangaje mu Ukwakira 1993 cyari igitekerezo cy’i Paris.

Umushakashatsi Tom Ndahiro

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