IGIHE

Bimwe mu bintu bifasha ubukene kubaho no kuzahaza za sosiyete

4 30-09-2019 - saa 15:46, Dr. Gasana Sebastien

Ku muntu, ubukene bushobora kugaragazwa n’ibimenyetso binyuranye, birimo nko kutagira amafaranga cyangwa se ubundi bushobozi bwatuma abasha kubona ibya ngombwa bishobora gutuma abaho neza mu buzima bwe.Umuntu kandi ashobora kugira ubukene mu gihe iki n’iki, ariko akaba yanashobora kubuvamo, hashingiwe ku bintu byinshi, mu gihe gito cyangwa se kitarambiranye.

Muri iyi nyandiko ntabwo twifuza kuvuga ku bukene bw’umuntu cyangwa abantu ku giti cyabo, ahubwo turashaka kuvuga, ku buryo buvunaguye, ku bukene bugaragara muri sosiyete cyangwa ibihugu bimwe na bimwe, nk’uko tubibona hirya no hino ku Isi.

Ibyo tuvuga byose turabishingira ku bushakashatsi n’ibitekerezo bya Dogiteri Phil Bartle (1943-2015) n’abo bafatanije mu bikorwa binyuranye bigamije guteza imbere imibereho y’abantu, cyane cyane abo mu bihugu bitaratera imbere mu bukungu, ahereye ku biri muri Afurika.

Mubyo tugiye kuvuga kandi, ntabwo tugamije kwerekana impamvu (causes) zinyuranye zishobora gutera ubukene, ahubwo turavuga gusa ku bintu bimwe (facteurs) bishobora gutuma, muri sosiyete cyangwa ibihugu ibi n’ibi, ubukene buhaba, ndetse bugasa n’ubwahagize igicumbi.

Dogiteri Phil Bartle rero yagaragaje ibi bikurikira nk’ibintu by’ingenzi mu bituma ubukene bubaho muri sosiyete:

Kutamenya (Ignorance)

Iyo muri sosiyete izi n’izi cyangwa ibihugu birimo abaturage badafite, muri rusange, ubumenyi (connaissances/skills) ngombwa kugira ngo bashobore kuba bateza imbere imibereho yabo, dushingiye ku bice cyangwa inzego zinyuranye z’ubuzima bw’abaturage, ibyo bishobora gutuma ubukene busa nk’aho buhaba karande.

Amakuru n’ubumenyi abantu baba bakeneye ni ya yandi atuma babasha kongera ubushobozi bwabo mubyo bakora kugira ngo bashobore kubikora neza kurushaho, bityo bibe byabazanira inyungu yisumbuye kandi yanatuma nabo babasha kubaho neza.

Urugero, niba umuntu ari umuhinzi ukaba ushaka kumuteza imbere, amakuru n’ubumenyi azaba agukeneyeho, mbere na mbere ni ya yandi ajyanye no kumenya icyo yakora kugira ngo umusaruro we mu buhinzi uzabe mwiza kandi mwinshi ndetse awukuremo n’undi mutungo yifuza wazamura imibereho ye.

Mu yandi magambo, hari ubwo abantu bahabwa amakuru ya rusange, ariko ugasanga adashobora kubagirira akamaro cyangwa ngo abe yaba intandaro yo guhindura imibereho yabo kuko adatanga ibisubizo ku bibazo byihariye baba bafite, ushingiye ku buzima baba barimo.

Indwara

Muri rusange, igihugu cyangwa sosiyete irangwamo indwara zinyuranye kandi zidatuza, nyamara zashobora kwirindwa, bituma icyo gihugu kidatera imbere nk’uko byakagenze. N’ubushobozi buke bw’amikoro abantu bafite babumarira mu kwivuza, tutibagiwe n’igihe ndetse n’imbaraga batakaza, iyo barwaye, kandi bakagombye kubikoresha mu guteza imbere imibereho yabo.

Mu kwirinda ko indwara zitiza umurindi ubukene kandi zikabubyara cyangwa zikabwongera, ni ngombwa kwita ku bintu byose byatuma ubuzima bw’abaturage, muri rusange, burushaho kumera neza no kubarinda indwara.

Aha twavuga nko kubigisha uburyo indwara zinyuranye zirindwa, kwita ku isuku rusange, kwegerezwa ibikorwaremezo by’ubuvuzi n’abavuzi babifitemo ubuhanga n’ibindi. Muri make, ni ngombwa iteka kuzirikana ko “kwirinda biruta kwivuza”.

Kwiheba no gucika intege

Mu buzima bw’abantu, kubera ibibazo binyuranye baba barimo, hari ubwo bagera igihe, muri rusange, bagasa n’abacitse intege, ndetse bagasa n’abahebeye urwaje. Ikindi gitangaza kandi kinababaje ni uko n’iyo muri abo bantu habonetsemo abafite ubushake bwo kurenga ubwo buzima baba barimo usanga abandi babaca intege cyangwa bakabagirira ishyari rigamije gusenya.

Abantu bari muri uko kwiheba no gucika intege, aho gukora ngo barebe ko bava mu buzima bubi baba barimo ahubwo akenshi birukira mu masengesho bibwira ko Imana yonyine ariyo izabakura mu bibazo barimo. Aha rero bakirengagiza ko ngo “Imana ifasha uwifashije”.

Uburiganya (Malhonnêteté)

Umwarimu n’umushakashatsi Dogiteri Phil Bartle agaragaza ko, cyane cyane ahereye ku bihugu bitaratera imbere mu bukungu, uburiganya bushingiye ku kunyereza umutungo uba ugenewe abaturage, bukorwa na bamwe mu bakomeye (cyane cyane abari mu butegetsi) ari kimwe mu bituma ubukene budacika, ndetse hamwe na hamwe bukarushaho kwiyongera.

Ibi birushaho gukomera kuko akenshi umutungo unyerejwe ujya guhishwa muri za banki zikomeye zo hanze.

Ahenshi usanga abo banyereza ibyari bigenewe kuzamura imibereho myiza y’abaturage batanahanwa, ahubwo ukabona barushaho gutinywa no guhabwa ibyubahiro, nyamara batari bakwiye muri sosiyete zabo.

Twibuke ko akenshi umutungo ugenewe abaturage, muri rusange, ubageraho ahanini biciye mu bikorwa rusange bibagirira akamaro uba washowemo; bityo bakabyifashisha mu iterambere ryabo. Iyo uwo mutungo unyerejwe na bamwe rero birumvikana ko abaturage bahahombera, bityo aho kugira ngo ubukene bwari buhari bugabanyuke ahubwo bukaba bwarushaho kwiyongera.

Gucungira ku bandi

Niba abantu, mu gihugu cyangwa muri sosiyete, bagwiririwe n’ibyago ku buryo butunguranye, birumvikana ko ubufasha bahawe n’abandi bushobora kubagirira akamaro. Ariko rero ntabwo abantu bagomba igihe cyose kurangwa n’umuco wo guhora bategereje ubufasha ku bandi kugira ngo bashobore gukemura ibibazo byabo bya buri munsi.

Iyo umuco nk’uwo wo gufashwa ubaye nk’uba karande bituma abawufite batanamenya imbaraga n’ubushobozi bifitemo byo kwishakira ubwabo ibisubizo by’ibibazo byabo. Ibi rero bigatuma batabasha gukora ngo barwanye ubukene kandi biteze imbere.

Igihe cyose abantu badashobora kumva ko iterambere ryabo mbere ya byose riri mu biganza byabo, ntabwo bashobora kwikemurira ibibazo bafite uko babyifuza.

Umuntu wese waba ashaka gufasha abandi kurwanya ubukene no gutera imbere agomba kubafasha, ku buryo bunyuranye, kubasha kugira ubushake cyangwa umuco wo kwikemurira ibibazo aho gucungira ku bandi gusa.

Mu gusoza iyi nyandiko twakwanzura tuvuga ko, duhereye ku bitekerezo n’ubushakashatsi bwakozwe na Phil Bartle (PhD), twifuje kwerekana bimwe mu bivumbikisho ndetse n’imbarutso (facteurs) yasanze bituma ubukene butarangira vuba mu bihugu bikennye cyangwa bikanabutera kwiyongera.

Ikiboneka ni uko buri kintu cyose mubyo twavuze kigira ingaruka mbi ukwacyo, ariko kandi byose bikaba binasobekeranye; ndetse kimwe kikaba cyanakurura ikindi ku buryo buba uruhererekane.

Dr Gasana Sebastien,
Umwarimu n’umushakashatsi muri Christian University of Rwanda (CHUR)

Dr Gasana Sebastien, ni umwarimu n’umushakashatsi muri Christian University of Rwanda (CHUR)
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Izindi nkuru wasoma

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TANGA IGITEKEREZO

AMATEGEKO AGENGA IYANDIKA RY'IGITEKEREZO CYAWE

1
Kambale 2019-09-30 13:57:40

Ibyo Celestin avuze byaba causes ntabwo ari factors, niba numvise neza ibyo Dr Gasana yanditse!

2
Chrina 2019-09-30 13:36:46

Yes, ibyo avuga Dr ni ukuri ariko yakagombye no kongeraho kutiha icyerekezo(la non détermination)

3
Ruterana 2019-09-30 09:21:40

Inyandiko nziza cyane, nk’uko usanzwe uzitugezaho. Thank you very much Dr!

4
celestin 2019-09-30 09:21:30

Agomba no kongeraho impanvu za politike ndetse níntambara na cyane mubihugu biri munzira zámajyambere!

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