IGIHE

Sobanukirwa TCAS, ikoranabuhanga ririnda indege kugonganira mu kirere

0 3-04-2024 - saa 10:05, Nshuti Hamza

Imibare yerekana ko ku Isi yose, kugeza ubu hakorwa ingendo z’indege zibarirwa mu bihumbi 100 buri munsi. Nta gitangaza kirimo kumva hari izagonganiye mu kirere, gusa uko imyaka yagiye iza, ikoranabuhanga ryagabanyije bene izo mpanuka.

Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) ni bumwe mu buryo bwifashishwa n’indege hagabanywa impanuka nk’izo, aho iri koranabuhanga ritanga umuburo ku byago by’uko indege ebyiri zagongana mu gihe cy’amasegonda nibura 40 ari imbere.

Abantu 349 ni bo baguye mu mpanuka y’indege ifatwa nk’iyahitanye benshi mu mateka, mu zabaye indege zigonganiye mu kirere.

Yabereye mu Burengerazuba bw’Umujyi wa New Delhi, mu Buhinde, ku wa 12 Ugushyingo 1996.

Indege ya Saudi Arabian Airlines 747-100B yavaga i New Delhi yerekeza muri Arabie Saoudite yagonganye n’iya Kazakhstan Airlines Ilyushin IL-76, yavaga i Shymkent muri Kazakhstan, yerekeza i New Delhi. Abari muri izo ndege zombi nta n’umwe warusimbutse.

Iperereza ryemeje ko iyo mpanuka yaturutse ku bapilote bari batwaye Kazakhstan Airlines Ilyushin IL-76 batubahirije amabwiriza bahawe n’abakozi bayobora indege bari ku kibuga (Air Traffic Controllers).

Ikoranabuhanga rya TCAS ryamenyekanye cyane ndetse ritangira kugirwa ngombwa mu 1989; ariko umushinga wo kurikora watangijwe n’Umunyamerika J.S Morrel mu 1954.

Uyu ni we ufatwa nk’uwarokoye ubuzima bw’abatabrika bagwaga mu mpanuka z’indege zagonganiye mu kirere.

Ubusanzwe abakozi bo ku bibuga by’indege (Air Traffic Controllers) bafasha abapilote kuziyobora babaha amakuru y’ingenzi arimo n’abarinda impanuka. Icyakora hari aho itumanaho hagati yabo riba ritagera bitewe n’ubutumburuke indege igezemo cyangwa aho ibikorwa remezo biri aho iherereye.

Ikoranabuhanga rya TCAS rikorana bya hafi n’utwuma tw’indege dukusanya amakuru tukagira ubutumwa dutanga twifashishije ‘signals’ tuzwi nka “Transponders”.

Iyo indege ifite ikoranabuhanga rya TCAS, ribasha gukusanya amakuru rikamenya indi ndege iri hafi aho, aho iherereye, ubutumburuke iriho, aho yerekeje, n’umuvuduko igenderaho. Ayo makuru yose ihita iyereka abapilote.

Mu gihe indege zombi ziri mu ntera idateje ikibazo, TCAS yerekana ayo makuru byonyine.

Iyo intera iri hagati y’indege zombi ishobora gutuma habaho kugongana mu masegonda nibura 40 ari imbere hashingiwe ku makuru yagaragaye, TCAS itangira gutanga umuburo ku bapilote ibamenyesha ko mu nzira hari ikibazo.

Icyo gihe ikoresha ijwi rivuga ngo “traffic”, ikabisubiramo zirenze imwe.

Aha ngaha biba ari ibisanzwe nta kindi abapilote bakora usibye kuryamira amajanja, biteguye ko isegonda ku rindi hashobora kuba ikibazo.

Uko TCAS ibona ibyago birushaho kwiyongera ihindura umuburo igatanga amabwiriza y’icyo abapilote bakora, igasohora ijwi risaba kuzamuka cyangwa kumanuka rivuga ngo “climb, descend”. Icyo gihe iryo koranabuhanga riba ryabonye amakuru yemeza ko indige zombi nta gikozwe zagongana nibura mu masegonda 25 ari imbere.

Iyo indege zombi zifite iri koranabuhanga, ribasha gukorana hagati yaryo maze rigaha amabwiriza abapilote b’indege zombi, risaba indege imwe kumanuka, rikabwira indi kuzamuka kugeza habonetse intera idateje ikibazo.

Icyakora imikorere ya TCAS mu ndege ntihagije ku kuba hatabaho kugongana kw’indege mu kirere, kuko yo itanga amakuru n’ibikwiye gukorwa gusa, icyemezo ndakuka kigafatwa n’abapilote.

Nk’urugero mu myaka yashize habaga ubwo abakozi bo ku kibuga cy’indege bahaye amabwiriza abapilote, bigahurirana n’uko TCAS nayo iri kubaha andi. Ibyo byateraga urujijo, ku buryo abapilote bubahirizaga amwe ugasanga abateje ibyago.

Ibyo ni byo byabaye ku wa 1 Nyakanga 2002, ubwo indege ya Tupolev Tu-154 n’iya Boeing 757 zagonganiye mu Budage, abagera kuri 71 bari bazirimo bose bakahasiga ubuzima.

Icyo gihe abakozi bo ku kibuga cy’indege (Air Traffic Controllers) bari batanze amabwiriza ko indege ya Tupolev Tu-154 imanuka, naho ikoranabuhanga rya TCAS ritanga amabwiriza ko izamuka, risaba iya Boeing 757 kumanuka.

Abo bakozi bakomeje gusaba ko Tupolev Tu-154 imanuka batazi ko TCAS yatanze amabwiriza ko iyo ndege izamuka, maze zombi ziramanuka birangira zigonganye.

Kuva ubwo hasohotse amabwiriza avuga ko mu gihe amabwiriza y’abakozi bo ku kibuga n’aya TCAS aziye rimwe, abapilote bagomba kubahiriza ayatanzwe na TCAS.

Magingo aya indege zose zifite uburemere bugera kuri toni 5,7 cyangwa izitwara abagenzi barenga 19 zitegetswe kuba zifite ikoranabuhanga rya TCAS.

Ikigo cy’Abanyamerika Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) kigaragaza ko impanuka z’indege zigonganira mu kirere hafi ya zose ziba ku manywa habona, ndetse inyinshi zikabera muri kilometero umunani uvuye ku kibuga cy’indege.

TCAS ituma indege zitagonganira mu kirere
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