IGIHE

Ni gute dukwiye kwitwara mu Isi ya murandasi?

0 7-04-2021 - saa 09:32, Jenny Thornton , Maurice Kajangwe

Ibyorezo si bishya muri iyi si yacu. Igitangaje kandi gituma COVID-19 igaragara nk’aho itandukanye n’ibindi byorezo byabayeho ku Isi, ni uko yabayeho mu gihe Isi ifite itumanaho rihambaye, ndetse abayituye bose wagira ngo batuye mu mudugudu umwe.

Ku rundi ruhande, mu gihe ubuzima twari tumenyereye kubamo busa nk’ubwahindutse bitewe n’iki cyorezo, abenshi ubu bahindukije amaso, bayerekeza ku ikoranabuhanga na murandasi (internet). Kuva ku bato n’abakuru, ubu ibikorwa byinshi bisigaye bikorwa hifashishijwe murandasi, mu buryo buteye imbere cyane tutashoboraga kwiyumvisha mu myaka micye ishize.

Ubu aho kugira ngo umuntu yicarane n’inshuti n’umuryango imbonankubone, aho baganira kandi bagahuza urugwiro, bahurira ku mbuga nkoranyambaga ndetse bakaganira bifashishije ikoranabuhanga rya video. Bitandukanye na mbere ya Covid-19, ubu abantu bari gukorera mu rugo, bagakurukirana amasomo, bakaruhuka ndetse bakanakora ibindi bikorwa bitandukanye, byose kubera murandasi n’ibikoresho by’ikoranabuhanga nka telefoni na mudasobwa bisigaye biboneka mu buryo bworoshye.

Gusa nta byera ngo de! Kuko uko turushaho gukenera no gukoresha Ikoranabuhanga cyane, ni ko n’ibyago birikomokaho birushaho kwiyongera.

Uko imibare y’abakoresha murandasi irushaho kwiyongera, ni ko abayikoresha mu gukora ibyaha n’ihohotera barushaho kubona uburyo bushya bwo kuturiganya, kutwiba ndetse no kutugirira nabi.

Ariko se dusubije amaso inyuma, twaba tumaze kumenyera ibyo byago byose ku buryo twumva nta ngaruka zikomeye byatugiraho? Mu gihe nta bukangurambaga bubayeho, twese dushobora kugerwaho n’izo ngaruka.

Ibi bishobora kutugiraho ingaruka zinyuranye zirimo kubangamirwa, uburakari, agahinda gakabije, kumva wanze abantu ndetse rimwe na rimwe ukaba wanagambirira kwigirira nabi, bishobora no gutuma wiyahura.

Gusa ku bw’amahirwe, hari imiryango igenda ivuka hirya no hino ku Isi, igamije kudufasha kumenya ibyo byago ndetse n’uburyo bwo kubyirinda. Umwe muri iyo miryango witwa ‘Get Safe Online Rwanda’.

Ku bufatanye na Minisiteri y’Ikoranabuhanga no Guhanga Ibishya (MINICT) ndetse n’Ikigo cy’Igihugu Gishinzwe Ikoranabuhanga mu Itumanaho n’Isakazabumenyi (RISA), uyu muryango watangije ubukangurambaga mu gihugu hose muri Nyakanga 2020 [bugamije gufasha Abanyarwanda kugira ubumenyi buhagije mu by’ikoranabuhanga].

Abantu benshi bakoresha murandasi, ntibumva ubushobozi bw’ingaruka ishobora kubagiraho. Abenshi ntibumva ko iyo ukanze ‘button’ cyangwa ka kamenyetso ko kohereza ubutumwa, ifoto cyangwa ubutumwa wohereje buba bugiye ku Isi hose, kandi umuntu akaba yabufata akabuhindura, cyangwa akabukwirakwiza ahandi kure, ku buryo uramutse ushatse ko buvaho, nk’igihe ukuze ariko ugasanga ibyo wakoze ukiri umwana ntibifututse, bishobora kukugora gukuraho bwa butumwa.

Uretse no kuba abakoresha bacu, abo dushobora kuzashaka, ndetse n’imiryango yacu bashobora kubona ibyo dukorera kuri murandasi, abakoreraho ibyaha nabo bashobora gukusanya amakuru yacu bakayifashisha badukorera uburiganya, batwiba cyangwa se badutera ubwoba bagamije inyungu runaka. Kuri iyi ngingo, abantu benshi bakunze kwibeshya no gutekereza ko uburiganya bwo kuri murandasi bukorerwa abandi bantu gusa, bakishyiramo ko bo bitabareba, gusa ibi ni ukwibeshya.

Ku muntu wese udafashe ingamba zifatika zo kwirinda, aba ashobora kugira ibyago birimo kuriganywa, kandi imibare yerekana ko ibi byaha biri kwiyongera mu Rwanda. Nko kuva muri Mutarama kugera muri Nzeri 2020, abantu 141 bakorewe ibikorwa by’uburiganya bikorerwa kuri murandasi, kandi ibyo bikorwa byari bigamije kwiba miliyoni 371 Frw. Miliyoni 89 zaragarujwe naho arenga miriyoni 280 Frw aribwa, ba nyirayo barahomba burundu.

Ni gute ubujura bwo kuri murandasi bukorwa?

Muri bimwe mu byaha bikorwa kuri murandasi byagaragaye cyane mu mwaka wa 2020, harimo gushuka abantu hagamijwe kubiba amakuru. Ibi bikorwa binyuze mu kohereza ubutumwa bwa ‘email’ bushukana, kwifashisha amagambo y’ibanga (passwords) adafite imbaraga ndetse n’ubujura bwifashisha simukadi.

Imibare itangwa n’Urwego rw’Igihugu rw’Ubugenzacyaha, RIB, igaragaza ko mu mezi atatu u Rwanda rwamaze muri gahunda ya ‘Guma mu Rugo’, ibyaha bikorerwa kuri murandasi byiyongereye, ku buryo amafaranga yabigendeyemo yiyongereye ku kigero cya 72%.

Bamwe mu bantu bakorerwa ibi byaba bakunda kubihisha, bitewe n’uko bacyeka ko biteye ipfunwe, kandi ibi bituma ikibazo kirushaho gukomera. Kugira ngo ubeho utekanye, ukwiriye kugabanya ingano y’amakuru yawe bwite ushyira kuri murandasi, arimo amatariki y’amavuko yawe, aderesi, amafoto adasanzwe ndetse n’ibitekerezo byawe (cyane cyane ibishobora gukurura impaka).

Mu gihe ugize inkomanga ku mutima mbere yo gushyira ikintu kuri murandasi, ukwiye kubanza kugitekerezaho kabiri, byaba ngombwa ukaba uretse kubishyira hanze, ukabanza kureba ingaruka byakugiraho, ku buryo utazabyicuza. Niba kandi ugize ibyago byo gukorerwa uburiganya, si byiza kubihisha, ahubwo ni ngombwa kubimenyesha inzego zibishinzwe no kuburira abandi.

Mu gihe abantu bahugijwe n’akababaro n’ubwoba baterwa n’iki cyorezo, abakora ibikorwa by’ubujura kuri murandasi babonye urwaho rwo kwibasira abayikoresha, kandi abakorerwa iri hohoterwa bahura n’ingaruka z’uburyo butari bumwe.

Ibikorwa by’ihohoterwa bishobora kubamo kohererezwa ubutumwa buteye isoni cyangwa bw’iterabwoba, gushyira kuri murandasi amafoto cyangwa video biteye isoni, guteshwa umutwe binyuze mu kohererezwa ubutumwa bwisukiranya, gukwiza ibihuha no guhabwa amakuru atari yo ndetse n’ibindi byinshi.

Ni gute wakwirinda ibyago bishobora guterwa na murandasi?

Mu gihe uri gukoresha murandasi, hari ingamba zikwiye gufatwa mu rwego rwo kwirinda ko ingaruka zayo zishobora kukugeraho.

Icya mbere ni uko utagomba gushyira ibintu kuri murandasi utabwira umuntu mu buzima busanzwe. Bivuze ko mu gihe ufite amabanga akomeye, murandasi siho hantu heza ho kubika amakuru y’ibanga, kuko ibyago by’uko yakwibwa cyangwa agahindurwa biba biri hejuru.

Ikindi ni uko mu gihe ubonye ibikorwa bitagushimishije, ndetse ukabona bimeze nk’ihohotera, ni ngombwa ko umuntu abimenyesha inzego zirimo iz’umutekano ndetse n’inshuti ze, kugira ngo agirwe inama muri rusange.

Ikindi ni uko ari ngombwa guhagarika (block) ibikorwa n’ubutumwa ubona utishimiye. Ni ngombwa kandi kumenyesha urubuga uri gukoresha ko hari ibintu utari kwishimira, kugira ngo bikorweho iperereza. Ibi kandi bigomba kumenyeshwa abandi bantu barimo Polisi n’abakuri hafi.

MU gihe abantu basigaye bakoresha telefoni mu kohererezanya amafaranga, ni ngombwa kwitondera kohereza amafaranga ku bantu utizeye, ukabanza kugenzura no gukora amasuzuma ashobora kukwereka niba uwo muntu ugiye koherereza amafaranga ari we ukwiye koko.

Kimwe mu bintu dukwiriye guha agaciro, ni uguteza imbere umuco wo kuganira ku mutekano wo kuri murandasi. Reka tujye tuganira ku mbuga dusura, ku bantu tuvugana na bo kuri murandasi ndetse no ku buriganya dukorerwa. Umutekano wo kuri murandasi uhera kuri wowe. Sura www.getsafeonline.org.rw kugira ngo umenye byinshi kuri iyi ngingo.

Jenny Thornton, Umuyobozi Ushinzwe ububanyi n’amahanga muri Get Safe Online
Maurice Haesen Kajangwe, Impuguke mu by’Umutekano wo kuri Murandasi muri Minisiteri y’Ikoranabuhanga no Guhanga Ibishya
Ikirango cy'umuryango wa ‘Get Safe Online Rwanda’ uri mu bukangurambaga ku ikoreshwa rya murandasi mu Rwanda kuva muri Nyakanga 2020
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