Hambere umukobwa yafatwaga nk’uwagenewe imirimo yo mu rugo abahungu bakaba ari bo bahabwa amahirwe ari benshi n’ugize amahirwe akarikandagiramo, bakamusibya mu gihe havutse ikibazo byanarimba akarivanwamo, bamwe bati n’ubundi ejo azashaka ntituzamutindana.

Imibare ya Banki y’Isi yerekana ko iyo umukobwa yiyongeje umwaka umwe w’amasomo mu mashuri yisumbuye, bijyana n’inyongera ya 25% ku bihembo bimutegereje imbere. Ni n’inyungu ihambaye ku gihugu kuko byagaragaye ko abagore bashora 90% by’igihembo cyabo mu iterambere ry’umuryango.

Ni ibanga FPR yamenye rugikubita maze umunyarwandakazi asubizwa agaciro, maze ibyavuzwe ko inyongera ya 1% ku burezi bw’umugore yongera 0.2% ku izamuka ry’ubukungu bw’igihugu ku mwaka, biba impamo mu rwa Gasabo.

Ubu umukobwa w’u Rwanda yiga amashuri abanza, ayisumbuye ndetse akaminuza, bituma igihugu ubu gifite abaganga b’inzobere b’abagore, abashinzwe umutekano, abapilote n’abayobozi mu myanya ifatirwamo ibyemezo.

Si impinduka zapfuye kwizana

U Rwanda rwumvise neza amavugurura, maze guhera ku Itegeko Nshinga ryo mu 2003 ryavuguruwe mu 2015, abagore bahabwa 30% mu myanya itorerwa, hatorwa n’andi mategeko ashimangira mu buryo ntakuka ko umwana wese agomba kurindwa kandi agahabwa uburenganzira busesuye, maze uwari warahejwe atangira guhatana mu myanya ikomeye.

Ubu byarahamye u Rwanda ni urwa mbere ku isi mu kugira abagore benshi mu Nteko Ishinga Amategeko (64%) ndetse mu bagize Guverinoma iheruka gushyirwaho, mu baminisitiri 20, 11 ni abagore.

Uburezi ni ryo shingiro rya byose

Nyuma ya 1994, politiki ya FPR mu bijyanye n’uburezi yahaye rugari abana bose ngo bige hatarebwe igitsina cyangwa ubwoko nk’uo bamwe babizize, icy’ingenzi kiba ko ugejeje imyaka niba ari mu mashuri abanza, cyangwa wabonye amanota yafatiweho niba ari mu yisumbuye.

Abana b'abakobwa bahabwa amahirwe asesuye yo kwiga aho bigaragara ko bashoboye kimwe na basaza babo

Ni urugendo rwasabye imbaraga n’umuhate, kuko nubwo hatangwaga amahirwe asesuye ku kwiga, ubushakashatsi bwo mu 2008 bwerekanye ko abakobwa bavaga mu mashuri cyane ugereranyije n’abahungu. Impamvu zagiye zigaragaza zikavugutirwa umuti kandi ukanyobwa nubwo waba usharira.

Minisiteri y’uburezi igaragaza ko hashingiwe ku buryo abana baganaga amashuri abanza, abahungu bari kuri 93.3% mu 2008, bagera kuri 97.3% mu 2016. Abakobwa bo mu 2008 bari ku gipimo cya 95.1%, mu 2016 bagera kuri 98.0%.

Imibare y’abakobwa mu mashuri yagiye izamuka kuko nko mu 2011, abigaga mu mashuri abanza bari 50.9%; abiga mu mashuri yisumbuye bari 51.5%; mu gihe urebye abigaga mu mashami ya siyansi bari 48.7% mu gihe abigaga imyuga bari 38.8%.

Mu 2011 kandi mu bigaga kaminuza, abakobwa bari 43.2%; wareba ku byo bigaga, muri koleji y’Ikoranabuhanga bari 17.4%, mu burezi ari 29.0% naho mu buforomo n’ububyaza ari 82.2%.

Iyo urebye mu mibare ya vuba, abakobwa bigaga muri kaminuza mu 2015 bari 42.4%, ariko ugendeye ku byo bigaga, muri siyansi bari 50.8% mu 2012 bagera kuri 55.2% mu 2016. Mu ndimi naho bavuye kuri 48.7% mu 2012, bagera kuri 56.6% mu 2016.

Minisiteri y’Uburezi igaragaza ko muri kaminuza za leta, umubare w’abakobwa hatati ya 2012 na 2016 iri hasi y’iy’abahungu, kuko aho babaye benshi hari mu 2013 bangana bari 34.1%.

Ni mu gihe muri kaminuza zigenga, mu myaka itanu ishize usanga abakobwa biharira ya kimwe cya kabiri, mu mwaka ushize bakaba bari 51.8%. Uhurije hamwe kaminuza zose, abagore barimo ni 42.4%.

Uburezi bw’umwana w’umukobwa burashyigikiwe

Guhera mu 2005 bigizwemo uruhare na Madamu Jeannette Kagame, Umuryango Imbuto washyize imbaraga mu guteza imbere uburezi bw’umwana w’umukobwa, ugenda uhemba abakobwa batsinze neza ibizamini bya leta bisoza ibyiciro by’amashuri abanza, icyiro rusange n’amashuri yisumbuye, ‘Inkubito z’Icyeza’.

Kuva iyi gahunda yatangira, abakobwa basaga ibihumbi 4,000 bamaze guhembwa kubera gutsinda neza amasomo yabo. Bahabwa ibikoresho by’ishuri, igishoro kibafasha gutangira gahunda yo kwizigamira kandi bagahabwa n’amasomo y’ibanze ku ikoranabunga.

Abakobwa bitwaye neza mu masomo bahabwa ibihembo bagenerwa na Imbuto Foundation

Hari na gahunda yo kwishyurira amashuri urubyiruko rwiga mu mashuri yisumbuye yatangiye muri 2003, aho buri wese abona ubufasha bugera ku madorali 300 ku mwaka, amufasha kwishyura amafaranga y’ishuri, ubwishingizi bwo kwivuza n’ibikoresho by’ishuri.

Byiyongeraho ko mu biruhuko, urwo rubyiruko ruhabwa amahugurwa ku bijyanye n’ubuzima, ubumenyi ku bijyanye n’ubukungu n’andi masomo abafasha kwiteza imbere. Kuva iyi gahunda yatangira, abanyeshuri barenga 6000 bamaze gufashwa kwiga.

Gahunda zitandukanye zizamura uburezi bw’umwana w’umukobwa zaje no gutizwa umurindi n’umushinga AGI (Adolescent Girls Initiatives) watangaga amahugurwa ku bangavu biganjemo abacikirije amashuri ku mpamvu zitandukanye.

U Rwanda rwamaze kubaka uburyo ntayegayezwa bufasha umwana wese kugana ishuri, aho byatangiye umunyeshuri yemererwa kwiga imyaka icyenda y’ibanze ku buntu, ubu igeze kuri 12 kugeza umwana arangije amashuri yisumbuye.

Raporo iheruka ku buryo u Rwanda ruziba icyuho mu buringanire, Global Gender Gap 2017, yarushyize ku mwanya wa kane ku isi, umwanya na wo rugikeneye kurenga kuko rwadindijwe n’urwego rw’uburezi rwaje ku mwanya wa 113.

Muri urwo rwego harebwe ibintu bine ku bitsina byombi: Mu kumenya gusoma no kwandika rwaje ku mwanya wa 102; mu gutanga amahirwe angana yo kwiga amashuri abanza ruba urwa mbere ku isi; ku mahirwe yo kwiga amashuri yisumbuye na ho ruba u rwa mbere ku isi, ariko ku mibare y’abagera muri kaminuza bituma ruza ku mwanya wa 113.

Abanyeshuri bari bitabiriye umuhango wo gutaha ku mugaragaro laboratwari y’ishuri rya Akilah Institute for Women muri Nzeri umwaka ushize


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