IGIHE

Ni nde ukwiye kuryozwa ibyaha bikomeye bishinjwa Mitterrand n’ibyegera bye?

0 7-04-2021 - saa 06:56, Ferdinand Maniraguha

Ibibazo bikomeje kwibazwa ni uruhuri nyuma y’iminsi Komisiyo yashyizweho n’u Bufaransa ngo icukumbure uruhare rwabwo mu mateka yagejeje kuri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu Rwanda, itanze raporo ya nyuma kuri Perezida Emmanuel Macron.

Umwanzuro wa raporo ya Komisiyo Duclert, ushimangira ko u Bufaransa bwagize ‘uruhare rukomeye kandi ntagereranywa” mu mateka yagejeje kuri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi.

Raporo igaragaza ko u Bufaransa bwari buyobowe François Mitterrand, bwananiwe kugira icyo bukora mu guhagarika Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi, bugakomeza gufasha ubutegetsi bwa Perezida Habyarimana Juvénal kandi bubizi ko abatutsi bari kwibasirwa.

Raporo ivuga ibihe bitandukanye, amabaruwa, ibiganiro n’inzinduko zitandukanye abayobozi b’u Bufaransa n’u Rwanda bagize guhera mu 1990, kandi bikagaragara ko Abatutsi bari bari kwibasirwa mu gihugu ariko u Bufaransa ntibugire icyo bukora ngo buhagarike inkunga bwahaga Habyarimana cyangwa ngo bumucyahe.

Raporo ivuga kuri Opération Noroît ubwo ingabo z’u Bufaransa zoherezwaga mu Rwanda mu 1990 ngo zitange umusanzu ku ngabo za Habyarimana zari zugarijwe n’ibitero bya FPR Inkotanyi. Igaragaza uburyo izo ngabo zakomeje kuba mu Rwanda kandi icyazizanye cyararangiye, ubufasha bw’imyitozo zahaye Interahamwe n’igisirikare cya Leta kugeza kuri Opération Turquoise yafashije Leta yakoraga Jenoside guhungira muri Zaïre, nubwo ho raporo isa n’iruma ihuha kuko nta byinshi ihagaragaza kandi bizwi ko u Bufaransa bwakomeje gufasha abari bamaze gukora Jenoside ngo bagaruke ku butegetsi.

Raporo kandi igaragaza inyandiko zemeza ko ubutegetsi bwa Mitterrand bwafashaga Habyarimana bubizi ko hari ikintu kibi kiri gutegurirwa Abatutsi, dore ko hagati ya 1991 na 1992, Ambasaderi w’u Bufaransa mu Rwanda na we hari telegaramu yoherereje abamukuriye avuga ko Abatutsi mu Rwanda bafite ubwoba ko bashobora gukorerwa Jenoside.

Igitangaje, ni uko raporo igaragaza ko u Bufaransa bwafashije Habyarimana, gusa igashimangira ko ibyo byakozwe byose ‘atari ubufatanyacyaha’ mu mugambi wa Jenoside.

Ubufatanyacyaha burigaragaza ku Kazu ka Mitterrand...

Prof Vincent Duclert uyoboye Komisiyo yakoze iyo Raporo, yabwiye abanyamakuru ko iby’ubufatanyacyaha muri Jenoside ari ijambo rikoreshwa mu butabera, ngo kandi bo ni abashakashatsi ariyo mpamvu batarikoresheje.

Umunyamategeko Richard Gisagara uba mu Bufaransa, yabwiye IGIHE ko atemeranya na Duclert kuvuga ko u Bufaransa nta bufatacyaha mu mugambi wa Jenoside bwabaye.

Yagize ati “Iyo avuga ubufatanyacyaha, areba ubufatanyacyaha bwa Leta nk’igihugu, ariko ntabwo yigeze yibaza ikibazo ati ‘ese hari ubufatanyacyaha bw’umuntu ku giti cye?’ Mitterrand we yarapfuye nta we uzamukurikirana, ariko hari abantu bakiriho. Muri raporo avugamo abantu yitaga nk’Akazu kihariye ka Mitterrand.”

“Abari bakagize barazwi, ni General Quesnot, General Huchon, Hubert Védrine, abo bantu batatu nibo ibintu byose byanyuragaho. Nibo batangaga amabwiriza ajya mu basirikare, nibo batangaga umurongo ugomba gukurikizwa batanyuze ku nzego za Leta, zashyizweho mbere.”

“Abo bantu baheje inzego za Leta, amakuru yose atari mu murongo wabo bakayirengagiza, umuntu wese ubabwiye ikintu badashaka kumva bakamushyira ku ruhande.”

Jenerali Christian Quesnot uvugwa mu Kazu ka Mitterrand, yari umugaba w’ingabo wihariye wa Perezida Mitterand kuva mu 1991 kugeza mu 1995.

Ni we wamenyeshaga ubuyobozi bw’ingabo ibikorwa bya gisirikare by’ingabo z’u Bufaransa mu Rwanda, byaba ibyakorwaga ku buryo buzwi cyangwa bwihishe. Mu nyandiko zose yagejeje kuri Perezida Mitterand, Christian Quesnot yasabiraga ubufasha bukomeye ubutegetsi bwa Habyarimana n’ingabo zabwo.

Mu gihe cya jenoside, Christian Quesnot yavuganaga kenshi na Perezida wa guverinoma yakoraga jenoside,Théodore Sindikubwabo akanasaba perezida Mitterand ko u Bufaransa bwaha ingabo za FAR ubufasha bwa gisirikare.

Jenerali Jean-Pierre Huchon na we ugaruka kenshi muri raporo, yari yungirije Jenerali Quesnot kuva muri Mata 1991 kugeza muri Mata 1993, nyuma aba umuyobozi ushinzwe iby’ubutwererane mu bya gisirikare kuva muri Mata 1993 kugeza mu Kwakira 1995.

Mu kazi ke,yashimangiye ibitekerezo by’ivanguramoko anahuza ibikorwa by’itangwa ry’intwaro, amasasu n’ibindi bikoresho bya gisirikare byagenerwaga aba FAR mbere ya jenoside no mu gihe yakorwaga.

Muri Gicurasi 1994, i Paris, Jean-Pierre Huchon yakiriye inshuro nyinshi mu biro bye abayobozi ba Leta yakoraga Jenoside.

Ni mu gihe Hubert Védrine yahoze ari Umunyamabanga Mukuru wa Elysée, Ibiro bya Perezida w’u Bufaransa ku bwa François Mitterrand, nyuma aba Minisitiri w’Ububanyi n’Amahanga.

Raporo Duclert igaragaz ako inyandiko nyinshi za Mitterrand ari we wazakiraga akazisoma kandi akamuha inama ku cyakorwa. Uyu mugabo w’imyaka 73 kandi avugwaho kuba umwe mu bashyigikiye ko abari bamaze gukora Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi, bahabwa rugari bagahungira muri Zaïre.

Umunyamategeko Gisagara avuga ko ibihamya Raporo Duclert igaragaza bihagije ku bufatanyacyaha bw’abantu ku giti cyabo, aho kuba ubw’igihugu muri rusange.

Ati “Inyito [Duclert] atanga ku bufatanyacyaha, ku bwanjye itandukanye n’inyito inkiko mpuzamahanga zigenderaho zibisuzuma. We avuga ko umuntu kugira ngo yitwe umufatanyacyaha agomba kuba ahuje umugambi n’uwo afatanyije na we icyo cyaha. Amategeko siko abivuga, ntabwo avuga ko ugomba kuba uhuje umugambi n’uwo muntu. Upfa kuba waramuteye inkunga ihagije kugira ngo agere ku mugambi we.”

Umwanditsi w’ibitabo akaba n’inzobere muri Politiki, Dr Jean Paul Kimonyo na we yemeza ko ibyo raporo igaragaza, harimo ubufatanyacyaha mu mugambi wa Jenoside nubwo raporo yirinze kubikomozaho.

Ati “Ibiri muri raporo bihabanye n’umwanzuro wa raporo uvuga ko u Bufaransa butabaye umufatanyacyaha muri Jenoside kubera igisobanuro raporo iha ijambo ubufatanyacyaha.Ushobora kuba umufatancyaha wa Jenoside niyo waba udahuje umugambi n’abakora Jenoside.’

Kimonyo yabwiye IGIHE ko kuri we abona u Bufaransa ahubwo budashaka gukurikirana abantu babwo bakekwaho uruhare muri Jenoside kubera impamvu za politiki.

Umusesenguzi mu bya Politiki akaba n’umunyamakuru, Albert Rudatsimburwa kuri uyu wa Mbere yabwiye RBA mu kiganiro Waramutse Rwanda, ko nubwo u Bufaransa butemera ubufatanyacyaha muri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi, ibihamya batanga bibigaragaza.

Ati “Igikuru nuko nibura bavuze ko byose byakozwe n’umuntu umwe ari we Mitterrand, ntakorane n’inzego za Leta nkuko zakagombye gukora no gukorana. Ntabwo bemera uruhare muri Jenoside ariko barabigaragaza ahantu hose ko icyaha cya Jenoside cyakozwe kandi batanzemo ubufasha.”

Kuri Gisagara, ntabwo u Bufaransa aribwo buzafata iya mbere mu kugeza mu butabera abakiriho bakekwaho uruhare muri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi.

Ati “Igikurikiyeho, imiryango yindi wenda ishaka kugeza mu butabera ibijyanye na Jenoside ari uguhakana Jenoside cyangwa abayigizemo uruhare, bashobora gufata iya mbere bakajya mu rukiko. Njye ndabona iyi raporo ishobora kuba intangiriro kugira ngo hagire ibindi bikurikiraho.”

Icyaha cy’ubufatanyacyaha muri Jenoside gihanwa n’amategeko y’u Bufaransa, aho ugihamijwe n’inkiko ahanishwa igifungo cya burundu.

Muri Raporo Duclert hagaragaramo abandi bagiye bagira uruhare mu gufata ibyemezo n’ibikorwa byagize uruhare muri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi nka Amiral Jacques Lanxade wabaye umugaba w’ingabo wihariye wa Perezida François Mitterand kuva muri Mata 1989 kugeza muri Mata 1991, nyuma aba umugaba w’ingabo (kuva Mata 1991 kugeza Nzeri 1995).

Hari Alain Juppé wabaye Minisitiri w’Ububanyi n’Amahanga w’u Bufaransa hagati ya 1993 kugeza 1995, Jenerali Jean-Claude Lafourcade yari umuyobozi w’ikirenga w’ingabo z’abafaransa zari muri Turquoise, Jacques Hogard wari umuyobozi wa Turquoise i Cyangugu, Colonel Jacques Rosier wari umuyobozi w’ibikorwa byihariye (COS) muri zone “Turquoise” n’abandi.

Abandi basirikare bakuru b’abafaransa bagize uruhare mu byaha byakozwe mu Rwanda hagati ya 1990 na 1994

Colonel Didier Tauzin

Yabaye umujyanama mu bya gisirikare wa Perezida Habyarimana kuva mu 1990 kugeza mu 1993, aba umuyobozi wa DAMI Panda na “Opération Chimère” (kuva tariki 22 Gashyantare kugeza 28 Werurwe 1993), nyuma aba komanda, mu gito wa “Turqouise Gikongoro”. Yagize uruhare mu gikorwa cyo gutoza Interahamwe no kurwanya FPR mu 1993. Ndetse yaranabyigambye agira ati: “Ntabwo tworohereje FPR ubuzima! (...),Twaburijemo amatwara yayo yo kugera i Kigali. (...) Nta mpongano”.

Tariki ya 4 Nyakanga 1994, yabwiye itangazamakuru ko ingabo z’u Bufaransa zitazazuyaza “kumena agahanga FPR” kandi ko itegeko ari: “ntihagire umuntu n’umwe usigara”.

Colonel René Galinié

Yari ashinzwe gucunga umutekano akaba n’umuyobozi w’ibikorwa bya gisirikare mu Rwanda (Kanama 1988-Nyakanga 1991), ayobora “Opération Noroît ( kuva mu 1990 kugeza muri Nyakanga 1991, uretse mu Gushyingo 1990), aba ushinzwe umutekano muri ambasade y’u Bufaransa mu Rwanda anayoboye ishami rishinzwe ubutwererane mu bya gisirikare (Nyakanga 1991-Mata 1994), ayobora “Opération Noroît kuva muri Nyakanga 1991 kugeza mu Kuboza 1993 uretse muri Gashyantare na Werurwe 1993. Azi neza ubwicanyi bwakozwe n’ubutegetsi bwa Habyarimana, yakomeje kubuhishira no kubuha ubufasha mu bikoresho.

Commandant Grégoire de Saint Quentin

Yari umujyanama mu bya tekinike wa Komanda ya batayo Para-commando, majoro Aloys Ntabakuze, akaba n’umusirikare mukuru utoza abarwanira mu kirere, kuva muri Kanama 1992 kugeza tariki 12 Mata 1994. Yari mu nkambi ya gisirikare y’i Kanombe akaba ari nawe wayoboye ibikorwa byo gusaka indege. Niwe watoje abicanyi bo muri batayo para-commando anayobora ibikorwa byabereye i Kanombe ku mugoroba wo kw’itariki 6 Mata 1994.

Capitaine Paul Barril

Mu 1990, mbere y’uko FPR itangira urugamba, Barril yakoze igenzura ry’ingabo z’u Rwanda. Yivugiraga we ubwe ko ari umujyanama wa perezida Habyarimana. Muri jenoside, yishyuwe na Guverinoma yakoraga ubwicanyi ngo atoze abasirikare kabuhariwe ngo hakorwe igikorwa cyiswe “Insecticide” (Kwica udukoko), cyari kigamije kurimbura Abatutsi. We ubwe ariyemerera ko yari mu Rwanda tariki ya 7 Mata 1994 ndetse muri Kamena 1994 yaneretse TV France 2, icyuma yavugaga ko ari agasanduku kirabura k’indege Falcon 50 ya Habyarimana. Ni umwe mu bahakana Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi. Ni nawe ufatwa nk’intandaro y’ingirwa perereza ryakozwe n’umucamanza Bruguière.

Général Jean-Claude LAFOURCADE

Jean-Claude Lafourcade yari umuyobozi w’ikirenga w’ingabo z’abafaransa zari muri Turquoise kuva tariki 22 Kamena kugeza 22 Kanama 1994. Abo basirikare b’abafaransa bafatanyije n’abayobozi bakoze jenoside. Ubuhamya bw’abasirikare bakuru b’abafaransa bwakiriwe n’abanyamakuru mu gihe cya Turquoise bwerekana ko abafaransa bari bazi abo bafatanya nabo mu guhitamo gukorana n’abayobozi bakoraga jenoside. Muri Turquoise, iyo hataba ubufatanye bw’abasirikare b’abafaransa bari bayobowe na jenerali Jean-Claude Lafourcade, ibyaha byakorewe i Cyangugu, ku Kibuye no ku Gikongoro ntibyari kuba.

Colonel Jacques Hogard

Jacques Hogard yari umuyobozi wa Turquoise i Cyangugu. Yaretse abo ayobora bica abatutsi, basambanya abagore ku ngufu banabakorera ihohoterwa ritandukanye rishingiye ku gitsina. I Cyangugu, abasirikare b’abafaransa bahaye intwaro Interahamwe, babashishikariza guhiga abatutsi no kubica. Mu nkambi ya Nyarushishi yari irinzwe n’abafaransa, Abatutsi baturukaga hanze yayo batangirwaga n’Interahamwe mbere yo kubasha kwinjira mu nkambi. Impunzi z’Abatutsi zageragezaga kujya gushaka ibyokurya kubera inzara, Interahamwe zahitaga zibica abasirikare b’abafaransa barebera.

Colonel Jacques Rosier

Muri Kamena 1994, Jacques Rosier yagarutse mu Rwanda ari umuyobozi w’ibikorwa byihariye (COS) kuva tariki 22 Kamena kugeza 30 Nyakanga 1994 mu gace ka “Turquoise”. Iyicwa ry’Abatutsi mu Bisesero rikomoka ku myanzuro yafashe we ubwe. Jacques Rosier yari ku Kibuye tariki 26 Kamena 1994, ubwo yarebaga uko Lieutenant colonel Jean-Rémy Duval (alias Diego) n’abantu be 35 bari muri CPA-10 bafashe aho baba mw’ishuri ry’imyuga rya Kibuye. Niho yangiye gutanga uruhushya rwo gutabara abatutsi bo mu Bisesero bari babashije kurokoka kandi yari yamenyeshejwe ko bagiye kwicwa. Uwo munsi kandi, Jacques Rosier yemeje ko ubwicanyi bwakorwaga n’Interahamwe bufite ishingiro.

Colonel Sartre Patrice

Patrice Sartre yabaye umuyobozi wa Turquoise Gikongoro kuva tariki ya 5 kugeza ku ya 16 Nyakanga 1994, nyuma ajya ku Kibuye kuva tariki 16 Nyakanga kugeza tariki 21 Kanama 1994. Muri ibyo bihe, ibitero byinshi byakurikirwaga n’ubwicanyi no gusambanya ku ngufu n’ibindi bikorwa bitesha agaciro umuntu byarakozwe biyobowe n’abaturage b’abasivile. Nk’i Rubengera, abasirikare b’abafaransa, ku mabwiriza ya Patrice Sartre, bafatanyije n’abayobozi ba Komini Mabanza, bagize uruhare rugaragara muri jenoside. Abatutsi benshi bari bihishe, bamaze kumenya ko abasirikare b’abafaransa baje, basohotse mu bwihisho. Abafaransa bategetse ko abatutsi bari barundanye inyuma y’ibyumba by’amashuri bicwa.

Capitaine de frégate Gillier Marin

Marin Gillier yayoboraga itsinda ry’abasirikare b’abafaransa bari bakambitse ku biro bya Komine Gishyita. Tariki 26 Kamena 1994, abanyamakuru b’abanyamahanga bamumenyesheje ko mu Bisesero hari abatutsi babashije kurokoka kandi ko hari abasivile b’Abatutsi bariho bahicirwa. Yajyanye na mugenzi we Diego ndetse n’abasirikare be. Bahuye n’abo banya-Bisesero barokotse babasiga batagira kirengera. I Gishyita, Marin Gillier yari afite za kajugujugu z’intambara zogaga ibicu muri ako gace. Yari azi rero ibikorwa bya jenoside byakorerwaga aho hantu yari ashinzwe.

Général Jacques Lanxade

Yabaye Umugaba w’ingabo wihariye wa perezida François Mitterand kuva muri Mata 1989 kugeza muri Mata 1991, nyuma aba umugaba w’ingabo (kuva Mata 1991 kugeza Nzeri 1995). Ku mabwiriza ya Jacques Lanxade, igisirikare cy’u Bufaransa cyakoze igikorwa cyo kwijandika mu byaha bikomeye byakorewe mu Rwanda hagati ya 1990 na 1994.

Nk’umugaba w’ikirenga w’ingabo, Jacques Lanxade yabonaga ama raporo yerekana amarorerwa yakorwaga n’ingabo z’u Rwanda, ubwicanyi, politike y’ivangura ndetse na jenoside, ariko akomeza kuzishyigikira aziha ibikoresho ndetse n’abantu byari bikenewe ngo zigire imyitozo n’ubushobozi bihagije. Mu 1991, ari kumwe n’umuyobozi w’ibiro bye, jenerali Pidancet na koloneli Delort, umuyobozi w’ububanyi n’amahanga, Jacques Lanxade yasuye u Rwanda. Icyo gihe yagiranye ibiganiro n’abayobozi bakuru b’igihugu n’ab’ingabo, anasura abasirikare bari muri “détachement Noroît” na DAMI. Icyo gihe yamenyeshejwe ubwicanyi bwakozwe na FAR ku Bagogwe mu Ruhengeri, nyamara aharekera abasilikare b’abafaransa batozaga abicanyi.

Jacques Lanxade yatsimbararaga ku myumvire ivuga ko FPR igizwe n’Abagande ndetse akanayitiranya n’Abatutsi bose muri rusange, gutyo aba yitiranyije intambara ya politike n’iy’ubwoko. Mu bitekerezo bya Jacques Lanxade, buri Mututsi yafatwaga nk’ingabo ya FPR, umwanzi w’u Bufaransa ugomba kurwanywa.

Mitterrand yari inshuti ya Habyarimana wayoboraga Guverinoma yateguye ikanashyira mu bikorwa Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi
Mitterrand ashinjwa ubufatanyacyaha mu mugambi wa Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi
Alain Juppé agaruka kenshi muri raporo nk'uwagiraga uruhare mu byemezo Mitterrand yafatiraga u Rwanda kuko yabaye muri Guverinoma ari Minisitiri w'Ububanyi n'amahanga
Hubert Védrine yabaye Umuyobozi Mukuru mu Biro bya Perezida w’u Bufaransa hagati ya 1991 na 1995.
Général Christian Quesnot, wari umugaba w’ingabo wihariye wa perezida Mitterand Raporo Duclert imufata nk'umwe mu bari ibyegera bya Mitterrand
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