IGIHE

Amateka y’inzira y’umusaraba yagejeje kuri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi (Igice cya Kabiri)

2 15-04-2019 - saa 10:50, Nsanzabera Jean de Dieu

U Rwanda rwanyuze mu nzira zirimo amahwa, rwikorera umusaraba utamirijwe ingorane n’ubugome butisukirwa n’uwo ari we wese w’ikiremwamuntu.

Muri iyi nkuru tugiye gukomeza kubatekerereza inzira y’umusaraba u Rwanda rwanyuzemo mu gihe cy’imyaka 99, yashyizweho umusozo na Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi yo muri Mata 1994. Turibanda cyane ku byabaye ku ngoma y’umwami Mutara III Rudahigwa n’Ababiligi.

Nk’uko tubikesha igitabo “Intwari z’Imbanza zubatse u Rwanda rugahamya igitinyiro” Cyanditswe n’Umusizi Nsanzabera Jean de Dieu.

Kitwereka ko ibyabaye ku ngoma y’Umwami Mutara Rudahigwa, byaranzwe n’umuco wa kinyamaswa w’ababiligi wo kwikiza abatumvikana nabo, cyane cyane mu miyoborere n’amabwiriza acamo ibice Abanyarwanda bari badukanye muri ibyo bihe, ashimangira kurimburana n’imizi yose, ibikorwa byakozwe n’abakurambere mpangarwanda byubakiweho igihugu kigahamya igitinyiro.

Abanyaruhare rukomeye mu gukomeza gukaza ubugome n’ubugizi bwa nabi mu nzira y’umusaraba u Rwanda rwanyuzemo barimo Guverineri Mukuru wa Kongo mbiligi na Rwanda –Urundi, Tielkens waje gusimburwa na Pierre Pierre Ryckmans, Visi Guverineri wa Rwanda–Urundi Voisin, Rezida w’u Rwanda Cobeau na Musenyeri Léon Paul Classe, wayoboraga Kiliziya Gatolika mu Rwanda.

Ba kizigenza muri uwo mugambi ari nabo bari barangaje imbere abari mu migambi yo gukaza ubugome muri iyo nzira y’umusaraba bari barangajwe imbere na Musenyeri Léon Paul Classe ndetse na André Perraudin wamukoreye mu ngata, ari na we wakabuye Igice cya mbere cya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu wa 1959.

Mu gihe bari bamaze gukuraho umwami Musinga, bagize icyizere cy’uko babonye mu buryo burunduye uko bategeka u Rwanda uko babyumva. Kwimika Rudahigwa wari ukiri muto byabahaye icyizere kirunduye cyo kugenza uko bashaka kose u Rwanda.

Nyamara ntibamenye ko mwene samusure avukana isunzu, ibyo bakoreye se wa Rudahigwa bari bamaze kwimika, na we yarabirebaga kuko yatangiye kwinjira mu buyobozi bw’u Rwanda guhera mu wa 1929, ubwo yari umutware wa Nduga na Marangara.

Amahwa n’ibyobo bakomeje gucukura ngo Abanyarwanda bari muri iyo nzira y’umusaraba bahashirire, harimo no gukomeza guhanaguraho nyinshi mu nkingi zari zibumbatiye umuryango nyarwanda ngo urusheho kunga ubumwe nk’amaraso amwe. Izo nkingi zasenyutse ziyongera ku zashenywe ku ngoma ya Musinga nk’uko twazibonye mu gice cya mbere cy’iyi nkuru.

Mu nkingi zasenyutse ku ngoma ya Mutara Rudahigwa zirimo izimangana ry’amoko y’umuryango mugari w’Abanyarwanda.

Ababiligi bagera mu Rwanda basanze hari amoko y’imiryango migari 20, akungirizwa n’amoko y’inzu atagira ingano, ayo moko yabanaga neza kandi ategeka nta kibazo gihari kijyanye no kwishishana. Ababiligi bize ubucakura bw’uko bagabanya ayo moko bakarema andi makeya yaborohera kuyakoresha no kuyacunga.

Mu 1932 bashyizeho icyo bise ‘Ibuku’ bandikamo amoko atatu bahanze y’ubuhutu, ubutwa n’ubututsi ku buryo buri muntu wese yayigendanaga, yari Indangamuntu y’icyo gihe. Guhera ubwo inkingi y’amoko akomoka ku miryango migari y’Abanyarwanda irasenyuka, kurebera umuntu mu ndorerwamo y’ubuvandimwe ivaho, hajyaho kurebera umuntu mu ndorerwamo y’ubutunzi.

Habayeho kandi kuzima k’umuriro wa Gihanga: Ni umuriro wacanywe na Gihanga ahasaga mu wa 1091, washushanyaga uburame bw’umwami, ubusugire bw’igihugu n’ubumwe bw’Abanyarwanda. Wazimye mu 1936 kuko wari umaze imyaka isaga 845 waka ubutazima.

Mutara Rudahigwa akimara kwima ingoma yakoresheje uko ashoboye ngo aneze abakoroni b’Ababiligi, kugira ngo arebe uburyo yahenganura igihugu kikagaruka ku murongo cyari kigeze kure . Kugira ngo Rudahigwa yemeranye neza n’Ababiligi gukorana nabo, hari ibyo yemeye guhara birimo guhara umugore we wa mbere w’inkundwakazi.

Rudahigwa yemeye guhara umugore we yakundaga Nyiramakomari, ashaka undi mushya ngo basezerane bya gikirisitu ngo arusheho kunezeza abazungu. Ku wa 13 Mutarama 1942, nibwo Gicanda wa Maritini Gatsinzi wa Semugaza mwene Kigeli Ndabarasa yashyingiranywe n’umwami Mutara III Rudahigwa imbere y’Imana, ubu bukwe bwabo bwari bunyuranyije n’amahame y’ubwiru bitewe n’uko Gicanda n’umwami Rudahigwa bakomokaga mu muryango umwe w’Abanyiginya bo mu nzu y’ubwami.

Rozariya yakomeje kubana na Rudahigwa Charles Léon Pierre kugeza ubwo batandukanywaga n’urupfu mu mwaka wa 1959.

Kwemera ubukirisitu no kubatizwa nayo ni imwe mu nzira Rudahigwa yahisemo ngo agere ku mugambi wo guhengamura igihugu, abikoranye n’abanyaburayi bari bazanye amatwara mashya, nta gihungabanye.

Rudahigwa yemeye guhara imigenzo gakondo y’abakurambere, ayoboka amadini y’inzaduka aheba idini ry’Imandwa.

Rudahigwa amaze kubona ko Ababiligi hari byinshi bagira ubwiru bakabikora atabizi, kandi bisenya igihugu mu buryo bugaragara yiyemeje kubirwanya yivuye inyuma, na we afata icyemezo cy’uko hari imyanzuro azajya afata atabagishije inama nk’Umukuru w’igihugu. Kuva mu wa 1949 atangira gufata ibyemezo bimwe na bimwe bibangamira imitegekere y’Ababiligi.

Bimwe mu byemezo yafashe harimo nko guca uburetwa. Uburetwa yari imirimo abategekwa bakoreraga abategetsi biturutse kuri iryo sano ryonyine ry’ubutegetsi cyangwa abakene bakoreraga abakire, kandi iyo mirimo ntigire ibihembo.

Mu mpera zo mu wa 1949, Rudahigwa yaciye iteka rikuraho burundu uburetwa, bityo buri Munyarwanda akikorera ibyamuteza imbere ku giti cye nta wundi arangamiye.

Yakuyeho kandi ikiboko. Mu bihe by’ubukoroni, habagaho imirimo y’agahato, iyo utakoraga iyo mirimo wakubitwaga ibiboko bitagira ingano. Ibiboko bike byagenwaga n’itegeko byari Umunani bigakubitwa nk’uwabaga atasasiye Ikawa ku buryo buhagije cyangwa uwabaga atarangije igipimo cy’imyumbati. Ikiboko cyababaje Abanyarwanda kandi cyateye abagikubitaga n’abagikubitishaga kwiyumvamo ko bari hejuru, n’abagikubitwaga kwiyumvamo ko bari hasi.

Mu 1949 ikiboko Rudahigwa yaragiciye kugeza mu wa 1954 cyari kimaze kurunduka n’ubwo bamwe babikoraga rwihishwa.

Rudahigwa kandi yimye Ababiligi uburenganzira bwa burundu ku Rwanda. Ababiligi batsinda Abadage mu ntambara ya mbere y’Isi yose, umuryango mushya uhuza ibihugu wari umaze gushingwa SDN (Societe de Nations) wahaye Ababiligi ngo bakoronize u Rwanda nk’indagizo, ariko Ababiligi bakomeza gushaka gukuraho iyo ndagizo burundu ngo begukane u Rwanda nk’Intara y’u Bubiligi.

Uko bwije n’uko bukeye, Abakoroni b’Ababiligi bo bakomezaga kotsa igitutu Rudahigwa ngo ace iteka ryo mu rwego mpuzamahanga ry’uko yaguriye Ababiligi u Rwanda burundu.

Mu gitondo cyo ku wa 28 Ukwakira 1946, nibwo Ingoma zabyutse zinihira, abakaraza batangiye kuzisuka. Abanyarwanda bahurira i Nyanza mu Gakenyeri, bahakorera ibirori by’akataraboneka. Igihe kigeze Umwami Mutara Rudahigwa aterura ijambo ry’imbwirwaruhame, asoza agira ati “u Rwanda ndutuye Yezu Krisitu Umwami waremye Ijuru n’Isi, ngo abe mugenga warwo, aruhe amahoro uburumbuke uko ibihe bisimburana iteka’. Ababiligi icyo bari biteze ntibacyumvise, ariko ntibagira icyo babivugaho. Ibyo byose byakomeje kuba intandaro yo kumwijundika.

Rudahigwa yarwanyije ubujiji mu rwego rwo hejuru: Mu by’ukuri nubwo Abakoroni bazaga mu bihugu bavuga ko baje kubiteza imbere, Ababiligi bagaragaje guseta ibirenge mu gushaka ko Abanyarwanda bajijuka, Amashuri bashyizeho nayo makeya ni Abanza, andi bitayeho ni za Seminari nazo zigamije kwigisha abantu bazigisha abandi iyobokamadini.

Umwami Mutara Rudahigwa ntiyahwemye kubibaza Ababiligi impamvu badatanga uburezi bufite ireme nk’ahandi. Nuko guhera mu wa 1950, hatangira gushingwa andi mashuri mashya yisumbuye yigisha ubumenyi rusange. Akimara gufata uwo mugambi, hashinzwe amashuri agera muri atandatu.

Nyuma y’aho Rudahigwa akomeje kubona ko Ababiligi bakomeza gufata ibyemezo biyobora igihugu batamubwiye kandi, na we yabifata bakamureba nabi, yafashe icyemezo cyo guhindura uburyo ibyemezo biyobora igihugu bifatwamo. Nuko mu wa 1953 ashyiraho Inama Nkuru y’Igihugu, igizwe n’Abanyarwanda b’injijuke bavuye mu nzego zitandukanye z’igihugu mu rwego rwo gutegura itsinda ryatekerereza igihugu ahazaza ha cyo, hatitawe ku byo Abakoroni barimo.

Abo batangira guhuza ibitekerezo, ibyo bafatiye umwanzuro bigatangira gushyirwa mu bikorwa nta nkomyi.

Mu Rwanda rwo hambere kandi, ubuhake niko kari akazi abantu bakoraga bagahembwa Inka n’ibindi birimo no gushaka amaboko, ubuhake ni amasezerano azwi nubwo atari yanditswe, hagati ya shebuja (nyirinka) n’umugaragu ushaka Inka kimwe n’amaboko no gushyikirana n’abandi. Ubuhake bwahinduye isura mu gihe cy’ubukoroni.

Ubuhake bwaragayitse ku buryo ari Abanyarwanda, ari n’Abazungu basanze butajyanye n’ibihe, bugomba kuvaho. Nuko Rudahigwa atangaza iteka ku wa 1 Mata 1954, ryavanyeho ubuhake mu Rwanda hose, ariko kurishyira mu bikorwa byatangiriye muri Telitwali ya Nyanza.

Ababiligi barabirwanyije cyane mu buryo bugaragara, Rudahigwa arabihorera akomeza kubatega iminsi ngo azarebe iherezo rya bo.

Rudahigwa yahirimbaniye ubumwe n’ubwigenge by’Abanyarwanda ku buryo Abanyarwanda bamubonaga nk’Intwari ikomeye. Yagerageje guhengamura u Rwanda ngo rwongere rusubire ku murongo, ngo arukure mu nzira y’umusaraba rwari rumazemo imyaka myinshi, abaturage bacurwa bufuni na buhoro, barabujijwe amahwemo mu gihugu cyabo, arusubize ishya n’ihirwe, aruyobore mu nzira nziza igana aheza hishimirwa na buri muturage w’u Rwanda.

Inyiturano y’ibyo akoreye Abanyarwanda, hari abatarabihaye agaciro, maze bafatanya n’Ababiligi bari barangajwe imbere na Musenyeri Andre Perraudin, agambana n’Abahutu b’abahezanguni bari bibumbiye mu mashyaka rya MDR-PARMEHUTU n’ayandi ngo bamukure ku buyobozi bw’u Rwanda. Nuko kuwa 25 Nyakanga 1959, nibwo Rudahigwa bamwishe, aratanga agwa i Bujumbura mu Burundi, u Rwanda rutangira gusogongera ku kaga n’amahano ya Jenoside, yari yarateguriwe muri iyi nzira y’umusaraba.

Umwami Mutara III Rudahigwa ari kumwe n'abapadiri
Umwami Mutara III Rudahigwa
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TANGA IGITEKEREZO

AMATEGEKO AGENGA IYANDIKA RY'IGITEKEREZO CYAWE

1
Niyo 2019-04-16 01:15:55

“Intwari z’Imbanza zubatse u Rwanda rugahamya igitinyiro†Iki gitabo umuntu ugishaka yagikurahe ?Nasabaga Igihe ko yatubwirira Umwanditsi Nsanzabera Jean de Dieu akazandika n’igice cya gatatu k’iyi nzira y’amahwa u Rwanda rwanyuzemo kuva 1959 kugeza kuri genocide ya korewe abatutsi muri Mata 1994.

2
Ruganzu 2019-04-15 10:22:30

Ni byiza gukosora aho abantu benshi bibeshya bavugako amoko twagendanaga mu marangamuntu yazanywe nabaparmehutu. Iyo buku muvuga yashyizweho ku bw’umwami Musinga. Kugeza muri 1959 nta na rimwe abatutsi bigeze binubira ko murayo mabuku handitsemo ko ari abatutsi.Amateka asobanukiwe buri munyarwanda niwo musingi w’amahoro arambye.

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